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**1. Cola Ingredients and Production:**
– Primary modern flavorings: citrus oils, cinnamon, vanilla, acidic flavorant
– Trace flavorings: nutmeg, coriander, phosphoric acid, citric acid
– Sweeteners: high-fructose corn syrup, sugar, stevia, artificial sweeteners
– Clear cola production history: Coca-Cola, Denmark’s concerns about artificial coloring
– Unique recipes in Japan and reintroduction of Crystal Pepsi

**2. Health Effects of Cola Consumption:**
– Association with chronic kidney disease
– Contribution to high calorie intake in American diet
– Harmful effects of excessive consumption, especially for children
– Criticism of caffeine leading to physical dependence
– Link to osteoporosis in older women

**3. Global Regional Cola Brands:**
– Asia: Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia, China, Sri Lanka, Iran, Thailand, Mongolia
– Popular brands: MOJO, Amrat Cola, Thums Up, Red Bull Cola
– Unique recipes using local ingredients
– Preference for sweeteners based on agricultural policies
– Diverse range catering to regional tastes

**4. Regional Cola Brands – Europe:**
Germany, Russia, UK, Turkey, France, Portugal
– Brands like Afri-Cola, Baikal, Barr Cola, Cockta, Fritz-Kola
– Production without caffeine or phosphoric acid in some regions
– Fair trade brands like Ubuntu Cola
– Historical and modern popularity in Europe

**5. Global Cola Brands by Continent:**
– North America: Coca-Cola, Pepsi, RC Cola, Cott, Faygo Cola
South America: Inca Kola, Big Cola, Perú Cola, Kola Román
– Oceania: LA Ice Cola, Billsons Heritage Cola
Europe: Fentimans Curiosity Cola, Jarritos Cola, Jolt Cola, Jones Soda, Nuka-Cola
– Asia: Coca-Cola Clear, Elephant House KIK Cola, MyCola, Terelj, Le Breizh Cola

Cola (Wikipedia)

Cola is a carbonated soft drink flavored with vanilla, cinnamon, citrus oils, and other flavorings. Cola became popular worldwide after the American pharmacist John Stith Pemberton invented Coca-Cola, a trademarked brand, in 1886, which was imitated by other manufacturers. Most colas originally contained caffeine from the kola nut (Cola acuminata), leading to the drink's name, though other sources of caffeine are generally used in modern formulations. The Pemberton cola drink also contained a coca plant extract. His non-alcoholic recipe was inspired by the coca wine of pharmacist Angelo Mariani, created in 1863.

A glass of cola served with ice cubes
TypeSoft drink
Country of origin  United States
IntroducedMay 8, 1886; 137 years ago (1886-05-08) (as Coca-Cola)
ColorCaramel (with certain exceptions such as Zevia Cola and Kola Román)
FlavorCola (Kola nut, citrus, cinnamon and vanilla)

Most modern colas have a dark caramel color and are sweetened with sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup. They come in numerous different brands, with Coca-Cola and Pepsi being among the most popular. These two companies have been competing since the 1890s, a rivalry that has intensified since the 1980s.

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