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**Historical Overview of Germany**:
– Settlement in Germany dates back to the Lower Paleolithic era.
– Germany was formally unified into a nation-state in 1871.
– The Protestant Reformation had a strong impact on northern German regions.
– Various names have been used to refer to the region throughout history.
– Germany has a rich prehistoric heritage with various archaeological findings.
– The Roman Empire’s incursions into Germanic lands led to conflicts.
– The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest was a pivotal event in Germanic-Roman history.
– The Holy Roman Empire emerged from the division of the Carolingian Empire.
– The Hohenstaufen emperors promoted German settlement in the south and east.

**Modern Germany and European Integration**:
– Germany divided into East and West after World War II.
– West Germany experienced economic miracle in the 1950s and 1960s.
– Fall of Berlin Wall in 1989 led to German reunification.
– Berlin became the capital again in 1994.
– Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor in 2005.
– Germany has played an active role in the EU, signing key treaties and co-founding the eurozone.
– Germany contributed to peacekeeping efforts in the Balkans and Afghanistan.
– United Germany continued the international memberships of West Germany.
– Since reunification, Germany has actively participated in the EU.

**Geography, Climate, and Biodiversity**:
– Germany is the seventh-largest country in Europe.
– It borders multiple countries including Denmark, Poland, Austria, and Switzerland.
– Germany has a temperate climate, ranging from oceanic in the north and west to continental in the east and southeast.
– Germany’s territory can be divided into five terrestrial ecoregions.
– As of 2016, 51% of Germany’s land area is devoted to agriculture.
– Germany has 16 national parks, 17 Biosphere Reserves, and 105 nature parks.
– Germany has a variety of plants and animals common to Central Europe.
– There are over 400 zoos and animal parks in Germany.

**Political Structure and Foreign Relations**:
– Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic.
– Germany comprises sixteen constituent states referred to as Länder.
– Germany is divided into 401 districts at a municipal level.
– Germany hosted the 2022 G7 summit at Schloss Elmau in Bavaria.
– Germany has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad.
– Germany is a member of NATO, the OECD, the G7, the G20, the World Bank, and the IMF.
– Germany has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception.
– The country maintains strong alliances with France and neighboring countries.

**Economic Strength and Military Statistics**:
– Military spending in 2018 was $49.5 billion, about 1.2% of GDP.
– Chancellor Olaf Scholz announced an increase in military expenditure past the NATO target of 2%.
– Bundeswehr had 184,001 active soldiers and 80,947 civilians as of January 2020.
– Women can serve in all military functions since 2001.
– Germany was the fourth-largest exporter of major arms from 2014 to 2018.
– Germany is the world’s third-largest exporter and importer.
– Largest economy in Europe.
– GDP per capita is 121% of the EU27 average.
– Germany has the largest manufacturing sector in Europe.

Germany (Wikipedia)

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in the western region of Central Europe. It is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany lies between the Baltic and North Sea to the north and the Alps to the south. Its 16 constituent states have a total population of over 84 million, covering a combined area of 357,600 km2 (138,100 sq mi) and sharing land borders with Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. The nation's capital and most populous city is Berlin and its main financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr.

Federal Republic of Germany
Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)
Anthem: "Das Lied der Deutschen"
("The Song of the Germans")
Location of Germany (dark green)

– in Europe (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (light green)

and largest city
52°31′N 13°23′E / 52.517°N 13.383°E / 52.517; 13.383
Official languagesGerman
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Olaf Scholz
LegislatureBundestag, Bundesrat
• Total
357,600 km2 (138,100 sq mi) (63rd)
• Water (%)
• Q3 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 84,607,016 (19th)
• Density
236/km2 (611.2/sq mi) (58th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $5.537 trillion (5th)
• Per capita
Increase $66,037 (18th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $4.462 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita
Increase $52,823 (19th)
Gini (2022)Positive decrease 28.8
HDI (2022)Increase 0.950
very high (7th)
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date format
  • Day, month, year
  • Year, month, day
Driving sideright
Calling code+49
ISO 3166 codeDE

Settlement in what is now Germany began in the Lower Paleolithic, with various tribes inhabiting it from the Neolithic onward, chiefly the Celts. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before AD 100. In 962, the Kingdom of Germany formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the German Confederation was formed in 1815.

Formal unification of Germany into the modern nation-state commenced on 18 August 1866 with the North German Confederation Treaty establishing the Prussia-led North German Confederation later transformed in 1871 into the German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was in turn transformed into the semi-presidential Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship, World War II, and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, in 1949, Germany as a whole was organized into two separate polities with limited sovereignty: the Federal Republic of Germany, generally known as West Germany, and the German Democratic Republic, known as East Germany, while Berlin continued its de jure Four Power status. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community and the European Union, while the German Democratic Republic was a communist Eastern Bloc state and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the fall of the communist led-government in East Germany, German reunification saw the former East German states join the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.

Germany has been described as a great power with a strong economy; it has the largest economy in Europe. As a global power in industrial, scientific and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer. As a developed country it offers social security, a universal health care system, and tuition-free university education. Germany is a member of the United Nations, European Union, NATO, Council of Europe, G7, G20, and OECD. It has the third-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

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