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**History of Austria:**
– Austria was settled by Celtic tribes in pre-Roman times.
– Noricum, a Celtic kingdom, was claimed by the Roman Empire.
– Charlemagne conquered the area in AD 788.
– House of Babenberg ruled core areas of Austria.
– Austria was elevated to duchy status in 1156.
– Habsburg dynasty ruled Austria from the 13th century until World War I.
– Austria faced defeats by Napoleon Bonaparte, leading to the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.
– Empire of Austria was founded in 1804.

**Geography and Government of Austria:**
– Austria is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
– Bordered by Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein.
– Occupies an area of 83,879km.
– Capital and largest city is Vienna.
– Population of around 9 million people.
– Semi-presidential representative democracy.
– Popularly elected president as head of state.
– Chancellor serves as head of government and chief executive.
– Major cities include Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg, and Innsbruck.
– Ranked 25th in the world for its Human Development Index in 2021.

**Austria-Hungary Rule and National Identity:**
– Austria-Hungary ruled a diverse empire with various ethnic groups.
– Nationalist movements emerged causing challenges in ruling Austria-Hungary.
– Conflict between Austrian and German identity.
– Pan-Germanism promoted by Austrians for ethnic German identity.
– Ethnic tensions between German Austrians and other groups.
– Desire for reinforcement of ethnic German identity.
– Conflict between Austrian and German character.

**WWI, WWII, and Post-War Era:**
– Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914 led to World War I.
– Over one million Austro-Hungarian soldiers died in World War I.
– Republic of German-Austria founded in 1918.
– Treaty of Saint-Germain in 1919 confirmed new order in Central Europe.
– Austria regained full independence in 1955.
– Tyrol remains a point of contention between Austria and Italy.
– Austria joined the European Union in 1995.
– The political system of the Second Republic is characterized by Proporz.

**Military, Security, and International Relations:**
– Austria participates in the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy and peacekeeping tasks.
– Austria is a member of NATO’s Partnership for Peace.
– The major parties SPÖ and ÖVP have differing opinions on Austria’s military nonalignment.
– Austria amended its constitution to reflect its participation in security policies.
– Austria is home to the United Nations Office in Vienna.
– Austria has a complex relationship with Italy over the status of Tyrol.

Austria (Wikipedia)

Austria, formally the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in Central Europe, lying in the Eastern Alps. It is a federation of nine federal states, one of which is the capital, Vienna, the most populous city and federal state. Austria is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The country occupies an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) and has a population of around 9 million.

Republic of Austria
Republik Österreich (German)
Anthem: "Bundeshymne der Republik Österreich"
"National Anthem of the Republic of Austria"
Location of Austria (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350
Official languagesGerman
National languageAustrian German
Official regional languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential republic
• President
Alexander Van der Bellen
Karl Nehammer
Federal Council
National Council
• Name
1 November 996
• Duchy
17 September 1156
• Archduchy
6 January 1453
• Empire
11 August 1804
30 March 1867
12 November 1918
10 September 1919
1 May 1934
• Anschluss
13 March 1938
27 April 1945
27 July 1955
1 January 1995
• Total
83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) (113th)
• Water (%)
0.84 (2015)
• April 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 9,027,999 (98th)
• Density
107.6/km2 (278.7/sq mi) (106th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $626.458 billion (43rd)
• Per capita
Increase $69,069 (14th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $526.182 billion (33rd)
• Per capita
Increase $58,013 (17th)
Gini (2021)Positive decrease 26.7
HDI (2022)Increase 0.926
very high (22nd)
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+43
ISO 3166 codeAT

Austria emerged from the remnants of the Eastern and Hungarian March at the end of the first millennium. Originally a margraviate of Bavaria, it developed into a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in 1156 and was later made an archduchy in 1453. In the 16th century, Vienna began serving as the empire's administrative capital and Austria thus became the heartland of the Habsburg monarchy. Before the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire two years later, in 1804, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the dominant member of the German Confederation. The empire's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 led to the end of the Confederation and paved the way for the establishment of Austria-Hungary a year later, Austria was its part with the name Cisleithania.

After the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, Emperor Franz Joseph declared war on Serbia, which ultimately escalated into World War I. The empire's defeat and subsequent collapse led to the proclamation of the Republic of German-Austria in 1918 and the First Austrian Republic in 1919. During the interwar period, anti-parliamentarian sentiments culminated in the formation of an Austrofascist dictatorship under Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934. A year before the outbreak of World War II, Austria was annexed into Nazi Germany by Adolf Hitler, and it became a sub-national division. After its liberation in 1945 and a decade of Allied occupation, the country regained its sovereignty and declared its perpetual neutrality in 1955.

Austria is a semi-presidential representative democracy with a popularly elected president as head of state and a chancellor as head of government and chief executive. Major cities include Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg, and Innsbruck. Austria has the 17th highest nominal GDP per capita with high standards of living; it was ranked 25th in the world for its Human Development Index in 2021.

Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and of the European Union since 1995. It hosts the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is a founding member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Interpol. It also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999.

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