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**Geography and Boundaries:**
– Europe is a continent in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, covering 10.18 million km².
– Bordered by the Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Asia.
– Different conventions on the boundary between Europe and Asia existed until the 19th century.
– The current division of Eurasia reflects cultural, linguistic, and ethnic differences.
– The geographic border between Europe and Asia now follows a few bodies of water.

**History and Development:**
– Europe’s history includes the fall of the Western Roman Empire and Christian consolidation during the Middle Ages.
– The Age of Discovery led to global exploration and conquests.
– Industrial Revolution brought economic and social change.
– World Wars and the Cold War significantly impacted Europe.
– The concept of Europe began to form after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

**Culture and Civilization:**
– European culture includes diverse national and regional traditions with roots in ancient Greece and Rome.
– Italian Renaissance spread humanist interest in art and science.
– Age of Enlightenment and French Revolution shaped Europe.
– European integration has advanced through institutions like the EU.
– The concept of Western civilization emerged to group Europe and its colonies.

**Economy and Politics:**
– Europe’s GDP (PPP) is estimated at $33.62 trillion with a GDP per capita of around $34,230.
– The European Union (EU) represents the majority of Europe and is a supranational political entity with a common currency (Euro).
– Schengen Area abolished internal border and immigration controls.
– The concept of Europe was influenced by Germanic traditions and Christian-Latin culture.
– The EU has played a significant role in the economic and political landscape of Europe.

**Historical Periods and Events:**
– The Roman Empire, Christianity, and the Byzantine Empire were influential in shaping Europe.
– The Middle Ages saw divisions, unifications, and significant events like the Crusades and the Black Death.
– The Renaissance marked a revival of art, philosophy, and science in Europe.
– The East-West Schism, Inquisition, and Mongol invasions impacted Europe.
– The emergence of modern states, early modern period, and the Great Famine are significant historical events in Europe.

Europe (Wikipedia)

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and Asia to the east. Europe shares the landmass of Eurasia with Asia, and of Afro-Eurasia with both Asia and Africa. Europe is commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Greater Caucasus, the Black Sea, and the waterway of the Bosporus Strait.

Area10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi) (6th)
Population745,173,774 (2021; 3rd)
Population density72.9/km2 (188/sq mi) (2nd)
GDP (PPP)$33.62 trillion (2022 est; 2nd)
GDP (nominal)$24.02 trillion (2022 est; 3rd)
GDP per capita$34,230 (2022 est; 3rd)
HDIIncrease 0.845
CountriesSovereign (44–50)
De facto (2–5)
DependenciesExternal (5–6)
Internal (3)
LanguagesMost common:
Time zonesUTC−1 to UTC+5
Largest citiesLargest urban areas:
UN M49 code150 – Europe
  • a. ^ Figures include only European portions of transcontinental countries.
  • b. ^ Includes Asian population. Istanbul is a transcontinental city which straddles both Asia and Europe.
  • c. ^ "Europe" as defined by the International Monetary Fund.

Europe covers about 10.18 million km2 (3.93 million sq mi), or 2% of Earth's surface (6.8% of land area), making it the second-smallest continent (using the seven-continent model). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states, of which Russia is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 745 million (about 10% of the world population) in 2021; the third-largest after Asia and Africa. The European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents, such as the Gulf Stream, which produce a temperate climate, tempering winters and summers, on much of the continent. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable producing more continental climates.

European culture consists of a range of national and regional cultures, which form the central roots of the wider Western civilisation, and together commonly reference ancient Greece and ancient Rome, particularly through their Christian successors, as crucial and shared roots. Beginning with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 CE, Christian consolidation of Europe in the wake of the Migration Period marked the European post-classical Middle Ages. The Italian Renaissance, radiating from Florence, spread to the rest of the continent a new humanist interest in art and science which led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery, led by Spain and Portugal, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs with multiple explorations and conquests around the world. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers colonised at various times the Americas, almost all of Africa and Oceania, and the majority of Asia.

The Age of Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars began and were fought to a great extent in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence and competed over dominance in Europe and globally. The resulting Cold War divided Europe along the Iron Curtain, with NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East. This divide ended with the Revolutions of 1989, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which allowed European integration to advance significantly.

European integration is being advanced institutionally since 1948 with the founding of the Council of Europe, and significantly through the realisation of the European Union (EU), which represents today the majority of Europe. The European Union is a supranational political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation and is based on a system of European treaties. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. A majority of its members have adopted a common currency, the euro, and participate in the European single market and a customs union. A large bloc of countries, the Schengen Area, have also abolished internal border and immigration controls. Regular popular elections take place every five years within the EU; they are considered to be the second-largest democratic elections in the world after India's. The EU is the third-largest economy in the world.

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