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**1. Lemon Description and Taxonomy:**
– Lemon tree produces an ellipsoidal yellow fruit
– Lemon seedling, full-sized tree, flower, lemon with leaves
– Origin of lemon is unknown, possibly from Assam, northern Myanmar, or China
– Lemon is a hybrid of bitter orange and citron
Word ‘lemon’ may have Middle Eastern origin, roots in Old French, Italian, Arabic, and Persian languages

**2. Lemon Chemistry and Varieties:**
– Lemons contain phytochemicals like polyphenols, terpenes, and tannins
– Lemon juice has high citric acid content compared to lime, grapefruit, and orange juice
– Lemon juice pH is around 2.2
– Bonnie Brae, Eureka, Pink-fleshed Eureka, Lisbon, Femminello St. Teresa are lemon varieties

**3. Lemon Cultivation and Production:**
– Lemons entered Europe in the 2nd century AD, cultivated in Genoa in the 15th century
– Introduced to Persia, Iraq, Egypt in 700 AD, to the Americas by Columbus in 1493
– Major lemon producers: India (3.8 million tonnes), Mexico (3.1 million tonnes), China (2.6 million tonnes), Argentina (1.8 million tonnes)
– World lemon production totaled 21.5 million tonnes in 2022

**4. Lemon Uses and Derivatives:**
– Whole lemon, slices, rind, zest, juice, and peel used in various culinary applications
– Lemon oil extracted for multiple industrial applications
– Lemon peel preserved in salt, used for pectin and flavoring
– Lemon leaves used in tea, enhancing flavor and fragrance in dishes

**5. Lemon in Culture and Miscellaneous Information:**
– Culinary significance, symbolism, traditions, and cultural roles of lemons
– Health benefits, aromatherapy uses, and phylogenetic origins of lemons
– Citrus × Limon varieties like Meyer and Variegata
– Additional lemon-related content in Wiktionary, Wikimedia Commons, Encyclopædia Britannica, and scientific identifiers

Lemon (Wikipedia)

The lemon (Citrus × limon) is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia, primarily Northeast India (Assam), Northern Myanmar, and China.

A fruiting lemon tree (blossom visible)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
C. × limon
Binomial name
Citrus × limon
  • Citrus × aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso & Poit.) Engl.
  • Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso) Wight & Arn.
  • Citrus aurantium var. bergamia (Risso) Brandis
  • Citrus × aurantium var. mellarosa (Risso) Engl.
  • Citrus × bergamia Risso & Poit.
  • Citrus × bergamia subsp. mellarosa (Risso) D.Rivera & al.
  • Citrus × bergamota Raf.
  • Citrus × limodulcis D.Rivera, Obón & F.Méndez
  • Citrus × limonelloides Hayata
  • Citrus × limonia Osbeck
  • Citrus × limonia var. digitata Risso
  • Citrus × limonum Risso
  • Citrus medica var. limon L.
  • Citrus medica f. limon (L.) M.Hiroe
  • Citrus medica f. limon (L.) Hiroë
  • Citrus medica subsp. limonia (Risso) Hook. f.
  • Citrus × medica var. limonum (Risso) Brandis
  • Citrus × medica subsp. limonum (Risso) Engl.
  • Citrus medica var. limonum (Risso) Brandis
  • Citrus × mellarosa Risso
  • Citrus × meyeri Yu.Tanaka
  • Citrus × vulgaris Ferrarius ex Mill.
  • Limon × vulgaris Ferrarius ex Miller

The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses. The pulp and rind are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5-6% citric acid,[citation needed] with a pH of around 2.2, giving it a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice, derived from the citric acid, makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie.

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