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– Wort Production:
– Obtain malt made from dried, sprouted cereal grains like barley
– Run malt through a mill to crack the husk and expose starch
– Mash milled grain with hot water to convert starch into sugars
– Lauter to separate sugar-extracted grist from liquid wort
– Boil wort to sanitize and extract bittering, flavor, and aroma from hops

– Adjunct Grains:
– Oats, wheat, corn (maize), rye, and rice can be added to the mash
– Adjunct grains may require gelatinization and cooling
– Used for varietal beers like wheat beer and oatmeal stout
– Used in grain whisky production or to lighten body in pale lagers
– Can cut costs in commercial mass-produced beers

– Wort Cooling and Fermentation:
– Quickly cool hot wort to yeast-friendly temperature after boiling
– Transfer cooled wort to fermentation vessel and oxygenate
– Add yeast to start the fermentation process
– Adjunct grains like oats, wheat, corn, rye, and rice can be added
– Used for varietal beers like wheat beer and oatmeal stout

– References:
– “Principles of Brewing Science” by George Fix, 1991, ISBN 0937381179
– “Homebrewing for Dummies” by Marty Nachel, 2008, ISBN 978-0-470-23062-6
– “Zymurgy for the Homebrewer and Beer Lover” by Charlie Papazian, 1998, ISBN 0-380-79399-7
– “Abdijbieren: Geestrijk Erfgoed” by Jef Van den Steen
– References provide valuable insights into brewing science and homebrewing techniques

Hops Addition:
– Bittering hops added first and boiled for 1-1.5 hours for resins extraction
– Flavoring hops added around 15 minutes before end of boil
– Finishing hops added last for aroma extraction
Hops provide most flavor when boiled for around 15 minutes
Hops provide most aroma when not boiled at all

Word (Wikipedia)

A word is a basic element of language that carries meaning, can be used on its own, and is uninterruptible. Despite the fact that language speakers often have an intuitive grasp of what a word is, there is no consensus among linguists on its definition and numerous attempts to find specific criteria of the concept remain controversial. Different standards have been proposed, depending on the theoretical background and descriptive context; these do not converge on a single definition. Some specific definitions of the term "word" are employed to convey its different meanings at different levels of description, for example based on phonological, grammatical or orthographic basis. Others suggest that the concept is simply a convention used in everyday situations.

Sign of a New Zealand hill with an unusually long one-word name: Taumata­whakatangihanga­koauau­o­tamatea­turi­pukaka­piki­maunga­horo­nuku­pokai­whenua­ki­tana­tahu (85 characters)

The concept of "word" is distinguished from that of a morpheme, which is the smallest unit of language that has a meaning, even if it cannot stand on its own. Words are made out of at least one morpheme. Morphemes can also be joined to create other words in a process of morphological derivation. In English and many other languages, the morphemes that make up a word generally include at least one root (such as "rock", "god", "type", "writ", "can", "not") and possibly some affixes ("-s", "un-", "-ly", "-ness"). Words with more than one root ("[type][writ]er", "[cow][boy]s", "[tele][graph]ically") are called compound words. In turn, words are combined to form other elements of language, such as phrases ("a red rock", "put up with"), clauses ("I threw a rock"), and sentences ("I threw a rock, but missed").

In many languages, the notion of what constitutes a "word" may be learned as part of learning the writing system. This is the case for the English language, and for most languages that are written with alphabets derived from the ancient Latin or Greek alphabets. In English orthography, the letter sequences "rock", "god", "write", "with", "the", and "not" are considered to be single-morpheme words, whereas "rocks", "ungodliness", "typewriter", and "cannot" are words composed of two or more morphemes ("rock"+"s", "un"+"god"+"li"+"ness", "type"+"writ"+"er", and "can"+"not").

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