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**Historical Aspects**:
– Brewing has a long history dating back to the 6th millennium BC in civilizations like China, Egypt, and Mesopotamia.
– Female deities like Ninkasi were associated with brewing.
– Chemical tests show beer production 7,000 years ago in Iran.
Beer played a role in the development of technology and civilization.
– Brewing moved from artisanal to industrial manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.

**Ingredients and Brewing Process**:
– Basic beer ingredients include water, starch source, yeast, and flavoring like hops.
– Different starch sources like maize, rice, and sorghum can be used.
Malting grain produces enzymes for sugar conversion in the mash process.
– Steps in the brewing process include malting, milling, mashing, boiling, fermenting, and packaging.
– Different fermentation methods like warm, cool, and spontaneous exist.

**Types of Beer and Brewing Techniques**:
– Different types of beer include stout, pale lager, and pale ale.
– Regional water mineral components influence beer characteristics.
– Darker malts produce darker beers.
– Post-fermentation treatments include filtering and barrel-aging.
– Additional methods like Burtonisation and double dropping are used in brewing.

**Economic Impact and Industry Overview**:
– The brewing industry has been part of western economies since the 19th century.
– Global beer sales exceed 133 billion liters per year.
– Total global beer revenues reached $294.5 billion in 2006.
– The industry includes multinational companies and smaller producers.
– Brewing has transitioned from artisanal to industrial manufacture.

**Specific Brewing Components**:
Hops are female flower clusters used in beer for flavor and preservation.
Yeast is responsible for fermentation in beer and influences the character and flavor.
– Clarifying agents like isinglass and Irish moss are used to make beer appear bright and clean.
– Gluten-free beer is made with sorghum for those with gluten intolerance.
– Brewing equipment includes kettles, fermenters, and mash tuns, crucial for consistency in brewing.

Brewing (Wikipedia)

Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast. It may be done in a brewery by a commercial brewer, at home by a homebrewer, or communally. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, and archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations, including ancient Egypt, China, and Mesopotamia, brewed beer. Since the nineteenth century the brewing industry has been part of most western economies.

A 16th-century brewery

The basic ingredients of beer are water and a fermentable starch source such as malted barley. Most beer is fermented with a brewer's yeast and flavoured with hops. Less widely used starch sources include millet, sorghum and cassava. Secondary sources (adjuncts), such as maize (corn), rice, or sugar, may also be used, sometimes to reduce cost, or to add a feature, such as adding wheat to aid in retaining the foamy head of the beer. The most common starch source is ground cereal or "grist" - the proportion of the starch or cereal ingredients in a beer recipe may be called grist, grain bill, or simply mash ingredients.

Steps in the brewing process include malting, milling, mashing, lautering, boiling, fermenting, conditioning, filtering, and packaging. There are three main fermentation methods: warm, cool and spontaneous. Fermentation may take place in an open or closed fermenting vessel; a secondary fermentation may also occur in the cask or bottle. There are several additional brewing methods, such as Burtonisation, double dropping, and Yorkshire Square, as well as post-fermentation treatment such as filtering, and barrel-ageing.

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