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**Historical and Cultural Aspects**:
– Prehistoric evidence of human habitation dating back to 11,000 years BCE in Guilá Naquitz cave.
– Agriculture established by 2000 BCE in Central Valleys region, with a diet of corn, beans, and chocolate.
– Zapotecs dominating the region with Monte Albán as a major center from 500 BCE to AD 750.
– Name ‘Oaxaca’ derived from the Nahuatl word ‘Huaxyacac’ by the Aztecs, later adopted by the Spanish.
– Known for indigenous cultures, with 16 recognized groups and rich heritage in arts, crafts, and traditions.

**Geographical and Economical Significance**:
– Located in southern Mexico, bordered by Guerrero, Puebla, Veracruz, and Chiapas.
– Significant coastline on the Pacific Ocean, attracting tourists to areas like Huatulco and Puerto Escondido.
– High biodiversity ranking in the top three for reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and plants.
– Economy driven by tourism, agriculture (corn, beans, chocolate, etc.), and crafts like textiles and pottery.
– Influence of historical sites, festivals, and markets on Oaxaca’s economy.

**Spanish Colonization and Cultural Resilience**:
– Spaniards arrived in Oaxaca post the fall of Tenochtitlan, leading to a decline in the native population.
– Introduction of new animals, crops, and the categorization of indigenous people as ‘Indians.’
– Despite Spanish influence, Oaxaca’s indigenous people maintained their culture and identity.
– Geography aiding in isolating communities, preserving traditions, and limited violence against indigenous populations.
– Resistance to Spanish colonization, sporadic outbreaks, and the decline in native population due to diseases and forced labor.

**Independence Struggles and Prominent Figures**:
– Oaxaca initially loyal to the Spanish Crown during the Mexican War of Independence.
– Figures like Valerio Trujano, Benito Juárez, and Porfirio Díaz played significant roles in independence struggles.
– Juárez implemented reforms, faced challenges from French forces, and is considered a legend for the indigenous population.
– Political and military struggles between liberal and conservative factions post-independence.
– Modernization efforts in the late 19th century, Mexican Revolution, and the writing of a new state constitution in 1922.

**Natural Environment and Conservation Efforts**:
– Oaxaca’s diverse climate regions and annual precipitation ranging from 430 to 2,700mm.
– Most biodiverse state in Mexico with over 8,400 plant species and various terrestrial vertebrates.
– Challenges include over-exploitation, pollution, and lack of economic alternatives for conservation.
– Seven officially protected natural areas, including national parks and biosphere reserves.
– Specific parks like Lagunas de Chacahua and Benito Juárez National Park showcasing diverse flora and fauna.

Oaxaca (Wikipedia)

Oaxaca (English: /wəˈhækə/ wə-HAK, also US: /wɑːˈhɑːkɑː/ wah-HAH-kah, Spanish: [waˈxaka] , from Classical Nahuatl: Huāxyacac [waːʃˈjakak] ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 32 states that compose the Federative Entities of the United Mexican States. It is divided into 570 municipalities, of which 418 (almost three quarters) are governed by the system of usos y costumbres (customs and traditions) with recognized local forms of self-governance. Its capital city is Oaxaca de Juárez.

Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca
Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca (Spanish)
Huāxyacac (Nahuatl)
Coat of arms of Oaxaca
El Respeto al Derecho Ajeno es la Paz
(Respect for the rights of others is peace)
Anthem: Dios Nunca Muere (De facto)
(God Never Dies)
State of Oaxaca within Mexico
State of Oaxaca within Mexico
and largest city
Oaxaca de Juárez
AdmissionDecember 21, 1823
 • BodyCongress of Oaxaca
 • GovernorSalomón Jara Cruz (PRD)
 • SenatorsSusana Harp Iturribarría Morena
Adolfo Gómez Hernández Morena
Raúl Bolaños-Cacho Cué PVEM
 • Deputies
 • Total93,757 km2 (36,200 sq mi)
 Ranked 5th
Highest elevation
3,720 m (12,200 ft)
 • Total4,132,148
 • Rank10th
 • Density44/km2 (110/sq mi)
  • Rank22nd
Demonym(s)Oaxacan (Spanish: Oaxaqueño, -a)
 • TotalMXN 480 billion
(US$23.9 billion) (2022)
 • Per capita(US$5,657) (2022)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code
Area code
Area codes 1 and 2
ISO 3166 codeMX-OAX
HDIIncrease 0.710 High
Ranked 31st of 32
WebsiteOfficial Web Site

Oaxaca is in southern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Guerrero to the west, Puebla to the northwest, Veracruz to the north, and Chiapas to the east. To the south, Oaxaca has a significant coastline on the Pacific Ocean.

The state is best known for its indigenous peoples and cultures. The most numerous and best known are the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs, but 16 are officially recognized. These cultures have survived better than most others in Mexico due to the state's rugged and isolating terrain. Most live in the Central Valleys region, which is also an economically important area for tourism, with people attracted for its archeological sites such as Monte Albán, and Mitla, and its various native cultures and crafts. Another important tourist area is the coast, which has the major resort of Huatulco and sandy beaches of Puerto Escondido, Puerto Ángel, Zipolite, Bahia de Tembo, and Mazunte. Oaxaca is also one of Mexico's most biologically diverse states, ranking in the top three, along with Chiapas and Veracruz, for numbers of reptiles, amphibians, mammals and plants.

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