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– Characteristics of Liquid:
– Nearly incompressible fluid
– Conforms to container shape
– Retains constant volume
– One of four fundamental states of matter
– Definite volume, no fixed shape

– Comparison with Solid and Gas:
– Density close to solid
– Higher density than gas
– Liquid and solid termed condensed matter
– Liquids and gases both fluids
– Ability to flow shared by liquids and gases

– Composition of Liquid:
– Made of vibrating particles
– Particles held by intermolecular bonds
– Can flow and take container shape
– Maintains fairly constant density
– Does not disperse to fill every space

– Abundance and Rarity:
– Liquid water abundant on Earth
– Least common state in known universe
– Narrow temperature/pressure range for existence
– Most matter in universe is gas
– Liquids require specific conditions to exist

– Importance of Surface Tension:
– Spherical droplet minimizes surface area
– Surface tension natural in liquids
– Surface tension shapes liquid behavior
– Affects liquid droplet formation
– Key property in liquid dynamics

Liquid (Wikipedia)

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a nearly constant volume independent of pressure. It is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, gas, and plasma), and is the only state with a definite volume but no fixed shape.

The formation of a spherical droplet of liquid water minimizes the surface area, which is the natural result of surface tension in liquids.

The density of a liquid is usually close to that of a solid, and much higher than that of a gas. Therefore, liquid and solid are both termed condensed matter. On the other hand, as liquids and gases share the ability to flow, they are both called fluids.

A liquid is made up of tiny vibrating particles of matter, such as atoms, held together by intermolecular bonds. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Unlike a gas, a liquid maintains a fairly constant density and does not disperse to fill every space of a container.

Although liquid water is abundant on Earth, this state of matter is actually the least common in the known universe, because liquids require a relatively narrow temperature/pressure range to exist. Most known matter in the universe is either gas (as interstellar clouds) or plasma (as stars).

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