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– Application:
Ethanol can be separated from water using heat in a still.
– Copper stills are preferred for better-tasting spirits.
– Copper in the still reacts with sulfur compounds, improving taste.
– Copper-sulfur compounds require repairs every eight years.
– Modern distillation apparatus standards originated from the beverage industry.

Distillation Equipment:
– Pot stills consist of a single chamber for alcohol collection.
– Reflux stills use fractionating columns for increased distillations.
Vodka and gin are commonly distilled using reflux stills.
– Illegal home distilleries produce moonshine and poitín.
– Poitín has been legal for export in Ireland since 1997.

– Types of Stills:
– Pot stills provide incomplete separation for desired flavors.
– Reflux stills have fractionating columns for higher purification.
Gin distillation under reduced pressure yields fresher products.
– Stills made of glass and PTFE are used for gin distillation.
– Triple distilled grain alcohol is used for gin distillation.

– Related Concepts:
– Copper vessels are used to remove sulfur-based compounds from alcohol.
Distillation separates and purifies different chemicals.
– Stills have been used to produce medicine and distilled beverages.
– Copper linings in stainless steel stills prevent erosion.
Distillation is used to produce water for pharmaceutical use.

– Additional Resources:
– Plymouth State University provides information on distillation apparatus.
– Oxford University Press discusses distillation by-products as animal feeds.
– Henry Z. Kister’s book “Distillation Design” offers insights on the topic.
– Information on moonshine stills and alcohol stills is available online.
– Wikimedia Commons contains media related to distillation apparatus.

Still (Wikipedia)

A still is an apparatus used to distill liquid mixtures by heating to selectively boil and then cooling to condense the vapor. A still uses the same concepts as a basic distillation apparatus, but on a much larger scale. Stills have been used to produce perfume and medicine, water for injection (WFI) for pharmaceutical use, generally to separate and purify different chemicals, and to produce distilled beverages containing ethanol.

Swan-necked copper pot stills in the Glenfiddich distillery
Column still from Kilbeggan Distillery in County Westmeath in Ireland.
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