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**Historical Background**:
– Slovenia’s name means “land of the Slavs,” with the origin of the name Slav being uncertain.
– Evidence of human habitation in present-day Slovenia dates back to around 250,000 years ago.
– Slavic settlement in the Alpine area occurred after the departure of the Lombards in 568.
– Carantania became a vassal duchy under Bavarians in the mid-8th century.
– Slovene territory was divided into border regions of the Holy Roman Empire after Otto I’s victory in 955.

**Cultural and Social Development**:
– Slovenes emigrated extensively between 1880 and 1910 to places like the US, South America, Germany, Egypt, Vienna, and Graz.
– Industrialization in Slovenia led to limited urbanization despite high literacy rates of 80-90%.
– A revival of culture and nationalist quest for autonomy occurred in the 19th century.
– Intellectuals demanded Slovene independence in 1987, leading to the Republic of Slovenia being established in 1990.
– Slovenia enjoyed relatively broad autonomy within the Yugoslav federation until the 1980s.

**Geography and Climate**:
– Slovenia is in Central Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea and touching the Alps.
– Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinarides, the Pannonian Plain, and the Mediterranean Sea.
– Slovenia’s highest peak is Triglav at 2,864m (9,396ft), and over half of the country is forested.
– The country has a varied climate influenced by relief and the Alps, with different climate types prevailing across the regions.
– Slovenia experiences lower average wind speeds compared to nearby countries due to its location in the Alps’ slipstream.

**Natural Environment**:
– Slovenia is divided into macroregions like the Slovenian coast, the Alps, and the subalpine landscapes.
– Protected areas in Slovenia include national parks, regional parks, and nature parks.
– Triglav National Park is the largest protected area in Slovenia, and the country has 286 Natura 2000 designated areas covering 36% of the land.
– Slovenia is in an active seismic zone with 60 destructive earthquakes identified in the past.
– Many parts of Slovenia have a carbonate bedrock with extensive cave systems and karst features like solution runnels on the Karst Plateau.

**Political and International Relations**:
– Slovenia declared independence on 25 June 1991, leading to the Ten-Day War against the Yugoslav Peoples Army.
– The Brijuni Agreement was signed on 7 July 1991, implementing a truce.
– Slovenia adopted a new constitution in December 1991.
– Slovenia joined the European Union on 1 May 2004 and NATO in 2004.
– Slovenia became an industrial center of Yugoslavia and enjoyed economic liberalization through workers’ self-management in the socialist period.

Slovenia (Wikipedia)

Slovenia (/slˈvniə, slə-/ sloh-VEE-nee-ə; Slovene: Slovenija [slɔˈʋèːnija]), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: Republika Slovenija, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe. Slovenia is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the south and southeast, and a short coastline within the Adriatic Sea to the southwest. Slovenia is mostly mountainous and forested, covers 20,271 square kilometres (7,827 sq mi), and has a population of approximately 2.1 million. Slovene, a South Slavic language, is the official language. Slovenia has a predominantly temperate continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral and the Julian Alps. A sub-mediterranean climate reaches to the northern extensions of the Dinaric Alps that traverse the country in a northwest–southeast direction. The Julian Alps in the northwest have an alpine climate. Toward the northeastern Pannonian Basin, a continental climate is more pronounced. Ljubljana, the capital and largest city of Slovenia, is geographically situated near the centre of the country.

Republic of Slovenia
Republika Slovenija (Slovene)
Anthem: Zdravljica
(English: "A Toast")
Location of Slovenia (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)
Location of Slovenia (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

and largest city
46°03′05″N 14°30′22″E / 46.05139°N 14.50611°E / 46.05139; 14.50611
Official languagesSlovene
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Nataša Pirc Musar
Robert Golob
National Council
National Assembly
29 October 1918
1 December 1918
19 February 1944
29 July 1944
• Independence from
25 June 1991
• Brioni Agreement
7 July 1991
23 December 1991
• Admitted to the United Nations
22 May 1992
1 May 2004
• Total
20,271 km2 (7,827 sq mi) (150th)
• Water (%)
• 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 2,123,103 (147th)
• 2002 census
• Density
103/km2 (266.8/sq mi) (106th)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $113.604 billion (93rd)
• Per capita
Increase $53,698 (36th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $73.865 billion (80th)
• Per capita
Increase $34,914 (34th)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 23.5
HDI (2022)Increase 0.926
very high (22nd)
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd. mm. yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+386
ISO 3166 codeSI

Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of Slavic, Germanic, and Romance languages and cultures. Its territory has been part of many different states: the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Carolingian Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Republic of Venice, the Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon's First French Empire, the Austrian Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In October 1918, the Slovenes co-founded the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. In December 1918, they merged with the Kingdom of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During World War II, Germany, Italy, and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a newly declared Nazi puppet state. In 1945, it again became part of Yugoslavia. Post-war, Yugoslavia was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact, and in 1961 it became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, Slovenia declared independence from Yugoslavia and became an independent sovereign state.

Slovenia is a developed country, with a high-income economy ranking highly in the Human Development Index. The Gini coefficient rates its income inequality among the lowest in the world. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Schengen Area, the OSCE, the OECD, the Council of Europe, and NATO. Slovenia was ranked 33rd in the Global Innovation Index in 2023.

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