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**Historical Development**:
– The name ‘Turkey’ originated in Western sources in the late 11th century.
– The Anatolian peninsula has been inhabited since the late Paleolithic period.
– Turkey has a rich prehistory, with Göbekli Tepe being one of the oldest known man-made structures.
– Anatolia has a diverse history, including settlements by Hattians, Hurrians, Hittites, and others.
– From the Byzantine period to the Ottoman Empire, Turkey has seen significant historical events and transitions.

**Geography and Demographics**:
– Turkey is located in both West Asia and Southeast Europe, bordering various countries and bodies of water.
– The country has a population of over 85 million, mainly consisting of ethnic Turks.
– Ankara serves as the capital, while Istanbul is the largest city.
– Turkey’s geography includes coastal plains, a high central plateau, and numerous mountain ranges.
– This section covers the physical and human geography of Turkey.

**Economic and Cultural Aspects**:
– Turkey is an upper-middle-income country with a significant economy ranked among the world’s largest.
– The country is known for its diverse cuisine and has a rich cultural heritage.
– Turkey is a leader in TV content exports and is a popular tourist destination.
– The nation faces challenges like earthquakes and climate change but has made progress in healthcare and education.
– Turkey’s cultural and economic contributions are highlighted in this section.

**Political Evolution and Modern Turkey**:
– The Ottoman Empire’s decline and the emergence of the Republic of Turkey under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk are covered.
– Turkey’s political developments, including the transition to a multi-party democracy and its international relations, are discussed.
– The formation of the Republic of Turkey, the Treaty of Lausanne, and Atatürk’s reforms are key points.
– Turkey’s EU accession process, recent political events, and challenges in human rights are addressed.
– This section outlines Turkey’s political journey from the Ottoman Empire to the present day.

**Architectural and Historical Legacy**:
– Notable architectural and historical sites in Turkey, such as the Hagia Sophia and Süleymaniye Mosque, are highlighted.
– The influence of various empires and cultures on Turkey’s architecture and traditions is discussed.
– The section covers the architectural legacy of the Byzantine Empire, Seljuks, and Ottomans.
– The impact of genocidal acts during the Balkan Wars and World War I on Turkey’s history is addressed.
– Turkey’s cultural and architectural heritage, as well as the challenges it has faced, are emphasized.

Turkey (Wikipedia)

Turkey, officially the Republic of Türkiye, is a country mainly in Anatolia in West Asia, with a smaller part called East Thrace in Southeast Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the north; Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq, Syria, and the Mediterranean Sea (and Cyprus) to the south; and the Aegean Sea, Greece, and Bulgaria to the west. Turkey is home to over 85 million people; most are ethnic Turks, while ethnic Kurds are the largest ethnic minority. Officially a secular state, Turkey has a Muslim-majority population. Ankara is Turkey's capital and second-largest city; Istanbul is its largest city, and its economic and financial center, as well as the largest city in Europe. Other major cities include İzmir, Bursa, Antalya, Konya and Adana.

Republic of Türkiye
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish)
Flag of Turkey
İstiklal Marşı
"Independence March"
Location of Turkey
39°55′N 32°51′E / 39.917°N 32.850°E / 39.917; 32.850
Largest cityIstanbul
41°1′N 28°57′E / 41.017°N 28.950°E / 41.017; 28.950
Official languagesTurkish
Spoken languages
  • Predominantly Turkish
Ethnic groups
  • Turkish
  • Turk
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Cevdet Yılmaz
Numan Kurtulmuş
Kadir Özkaya
LegislatureGrand National Assembly
c. 1299
19 May 1919
23 April 1920
1 November 1922
24 July 1923
29 October 1923
9 November 1982
• Total
783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi) (36th)
• Water (%)
• December 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 85,372,377 (17th)
• Density
111/km2 (287.5/sq mi) (83rd)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.613 trillion (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $41,887 (46th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.154 trillion (17th)
• Per capita
Increase $13,383 (65th)
Gini (2019)Steady 41.9
HDI (2022)Increase 0.855
very high (45th)
CurrencyTurkish lira () (TRY)
Time zoneUTC+3 (TRT)
Calling code+90
ISO 3166 codeTR

Human habitation began in Late Paleolithic. Home to important Neolithic sites like Göbekli Tepe and some of the earliest farming areas, present-day Turkey was inhabited by various ancient peoples. Hattians were assimilated by the incoming Anatolian peoples. Increasing diversity during Classical Anatolia transitioned into cultural Hellenization following the conquests of Alexander the Great; Hellenization continued during the Roman and Byzantine eras. The Seljuk Turks began migrating into Anatolia in the 11th century, starting the Turkification process. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into Turkish principalities. Beginning in 1299, the Ottomans united the principalities and expanded; Mehmed II conquered Istanbul in 1453. During the reigns of Selim I and Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire became a global power.

From the late 18th century onwards, the empire's power and territory declined; reforms were also made. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, persecution of Muslims during the Ottoman contraction and in the Russian Empire resulted in large-scale loss of life and mass migration into modern-day Turkey from the Balkans, Caucasus, and Crimea. The Second Constitutional Era ended with the 1913 coup d'état. Under the control of Three Pashas, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I in 1914. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Greek and Assyrian subjects. After its defeat, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned. The Turkish War of Independence resulted in the abolition of the sultanate in 1922 and the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. The Republic was proclaimed on 29 October 1923, modelled on the reforms initiated by the country's first president, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

Turkey is an upper-middle-income and emerging country; its economy is the 17th- or 11th-largest in the world. It is a unitary presidential republic with a multi-party system. Turkey is a founding member of the OECD, G20, and Organization of Turkic States. With a geopolitically significant location, Turkey is a regional power and an early member of NATO. An EU-candidate, Turkey is part of the EU Customs Union, CoE, OIC, and TURKSOY. Turkey has coastal plains, a high central plateau, and various mountain ranges; its climate is temperate with harsher conditions in the interior. Home to three biodiversity hotspots, Turkey is prone to frequent earthquakes and is highly vulnerable to climate change. Turkey has universal healthcare, growing access to education, and increasing innovativeness. It has 21 UNESCO World Heritage sites, 30 UNESCO cultural heritage inscriptions, and a rich and diverse cuisine. Turkey is a leading TV content exporter and is the fourth most visited country in the world.

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