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Ottoman Empire

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**1. Ottoman Empire Origins and Expansion:**
– Founded in 1299 by Osman I, expanded into Anatolia and Balkans
– Conquered Constantinople in 1453 under Mehmed the Conqueror
– Reached peak under Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566)
– Controlled 32 provinces by the start of the 17th century
– Expansion into regions like Hungary, Egypt, and Mesopotamia
– Dominated trade routes and became a naval force in the Mediterranean
– Conquests in regions like Thessaloniki, Kosovo, and Cyprus
– Ottoman rule preferred by Orthodox populations over Venetian rule

**2. Ottoman Empire Political Evolution and Conflicts:**
– Young Turk Revolution of 1908 led to the Second Constitutional Era
– Genocide against Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks during World War I
– Alliance with Germany in World War I
– Military conquests and conflicts with European powers like the Holy League
– Decline marked by Suleiman I’s death and loss of territories
– Participation in religious wars against the Iberian Union
– Impact of historical events like Timur’s invasion and the Black Death
– Transformation under the Tanzimat reform and modernization process

**3. Ottoman Empire Stagnation, Reform, and Decline (1566–1827):**
– Faced inflation, rising costs of warfare, and political crises
– Transformation in political and military institutions
– Impact of Western European trade routes on Ottoman economy
– Treaties leading to losses of territories to Safavid Iran and Venice
– Köprülü Era marked by military successes and defeats at Vienna
– Great Turkish War and Treaty of Karlowitz resulting in significant territorial losses
– Military conflicts and treaties with Austria, Russia, and other powers

**4. Ottoman Empire Educational and Technological Reforms:**
– Establishment of Istanbul Technical University and artillery schools
– Printing of non-religious books by Ibrahim Muteferrika
– Educational reforms opposed by Islamic clergy
– Efforts at army modernization by Selim III and Mahmud II
– Impact of reforms on artillery training and higher education

**5. Ottoman Empire Territorial Conquests, Losses, and Modernization Efforts:**
– Spanish conquest and sale of Oran in North Africa
– Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 and Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
– Acknowledgment of Serbia’s suzerainty as a hereditary monarchy
– Selim III’s modernization attempts and Janissary corps elimination by Mahmud II
– Political struggles with Muhammad Ali of Egypt and foreign interventions, including the French invasion of Deylik of Algiers

Ottoman Empire (Wikipedia)

The Ottoman Empire, historically and colloquially known as the Turkish Empire, was an imperial realm that spanned much of Southeast Europe, West Asia, and North Africa from the 14th to early 20th centuries; it also controlled parts of southeastern Central Europe between the early 16th and early 18th centuries.

Sublime Ottoman State
  • دولت عليه عثمانیه
  • Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye
c. 1299–1922
Flag of Ottoman Empire
Coat of arms
  • دولت ابد مدت
  • Devlet-i Ebed-müddet
  • "The Eternal State"
Official languagesOttoman Turkish
Common languages
• c. 1299–1323/4 (first)
Osman I
• 1918–1922 (last)
Mehmed VI
• 1517–1520 (first)
Selim I
• 1922–1924 (last)
Abdulmejid II
Grand vizier 
• 1320–1331 (first)
Alaeddin Pasha
• 1920–1922 (last)
Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
LegislatureGeneral Assembly
(1876–1878; 1908–1920)
• Upper house (unelected)
Chamber of Notables
(1876–1878; 1908–1920)
• Lower house (elected)
Chamber of Deputies
(1876–1878; 1908–1920)
• Founded
c. 1299
29 May 1453
23 January 1913
1 November 1922
• Republic of Turkey established
29 October 1923
3 March 1924
14811,220,000 km2 (470,000 sq mi)
15213,400,000 km2 (1,300,000 sq mi)
16835,200,000 km2 (2,000,000 sq mi)
19132,550,000 km2 (980,000 sq mi)
• 1912
CurrencyAkçe, sultani, para, kuruş (piastre), lira
Predecessor states and successor states
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sultanate of Rum
Anatolian beyliks
Byzantine Empire
Despotate of the Morea
Empire of Trebizond
Principality of Theodoro
Second Bulgarian Empire
Tsardom of Vidin
Despotate of Dobruja
Despotate of Lovech
Serbian Despotate
Kingdom of Bosnia
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Croatia
League of Lezhë
Mamluk Sultanate
Hafsid Kingdom
Aq Qoyunlu
Hospitaller Tripoli
Kingdom of Tlemcen
State of Turkey
Hellenic Republic
Caucasus Viceroyalty
Principality of Bulgaria
Eastern Rumelia
Kingdom of Romania
Revolutionary Serbia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Principality of Montenegro
Emirate of Asir
Kingdom of Hejaz
Mandatory Iraq
French Algeria
British Cyprus
French Tunisia
Italian Tripolitania
Italian Cyrenaica
Sheikhdom of Kuwait
Kingdom of Yemen
Sultanate of Egypt

The empire emerged from a beylik, or principality, founded in northwestern Anatolia in 1299 by the Turkoman tribal leader Osman I. His successors conquered much of Anatolia and expanded into the Balkans by the mid 14th century, transforming their petty kingdom into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II, which marked the Ottomans' emergence as a major regional power. Under Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566), the empire reached the peak of its power, prosperity, and political development. By the start of the 17th century, the Ottomans presided over 32 provinces and numerous vassal states, which over time were either absorbed into the Empire or granted various degrees of autonomy. With its capital at Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) and control over a significant portion of the Mediterranean Basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Middle East and Europe for six centuries.

While the Ottoman Empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline after the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, modern academic consensus posits that the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military into much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind those of its chief European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, culminating in the loss of both territory and global prestige. This prompted a comprehensive process of reform and modernization known as the Tanzimat; over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organized internally, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.

Beginning in the late 19th century, various Ottoman intellectuals sought to further liberalize society and politics along European lines, culminating in the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 led by the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), which established the Second Constitutional Era and introduced competitive multi-party elections under a constitutional monarchy. However, following the disastrous Balkan Wars, the CUP became increasingly radicalized and nationalistic, leading a coup d'état in 1913 that established a one-party regime. The CUP allied the empire with Germany, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation that had contributed to its recent territorial losses; it thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it struggled with internal dissent, especially the Arab Revolt. During this period, the Ottoman government engaged in genocide against Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks.

In the aftermath of World War I, the victorious Allied Powers occupied and partitioned the Ottoman Empire, which lost its southern territories to the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk against the occupying Allies, led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy in 1922, formally ending the Ottoman Empire.

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