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Czech Republic

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**Historical Background:**
– Evidence of prehistoric settlements dating back to the Paleolithic era
– Celtic migrations associated Bohemia with the Boii tribe
– Slavs migrating to the area in the 6th century
– The principality of Great Moravia arising in the 8th century
– The Duchy of Bohemia being unified by the Přemyslid dynasty in the late 9th century
– House of Luxembourg gaining the Bohemian throne after dynastic wars
– Jan Hus followers seceding from the Roman Church in the late 14th century
– The start of the Thirty Years War marked by the Defenestration of Prague in 1618
– Czechoslovakia being restored in 1945 after Nazi control
– The Velvet Revolution in 1989 leading to the end of communist rule

**Political System and Governance:**
– The Czech Republic being a unitary parliamentary republic
– Offering universal healthcare and free-tuition university education
– Ranking 32nd in the Human Development Index
– Membership in international organizations like the United Nations and NATO
– Multi-party parliamentary representative democracy
– Bicameral Parliament with Chamber of Deputies and Senate
– President appointing the Prime Minister and cabinet members
– Recent election results and key political figures
– President elected directly since 2013
– Legal system based on civil law with a constitution adopted in 1993

**Geography and Climate:**
– Czech Republic’s location and geographical divisions
– Four national parks including Krkonoše and Šumava National Parks
– Temperate climate with variations due to elevation
– Wettest and driest regions in the country
– Climate patterns with the coldest and warmest months
– Environmental performance ranking and conservation efforts

**Economic Landscape:**
– Participation in the European Single Market and the Schengen Area
– Developed, high-income export-oriented social market economy
– Per capita GDP rate compared to the EU average
– Ranking in the UN inequality-adjusted human development index
– Leading industries including automotive, firearms, and food
– Energy production and consumption details
– Transportation infrastructure overview
– Notable companies and their contributions to the economy

**International Relations and Defense:**
– Membership in key international organizations
– Visa-free access to 173 countries with the Czech passport
– Foreign policy relationships with various countries and groups
– Military structure and participation in NATO operations
– Human rights situation and notable activists
– Notable achievements in the digital and IT sector
– Energy exports and sources
– Transportation infrastructure details and communication advancements

Czech Republic (Wikipedia)

The Czech Republic, also known as Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Historically known as Bohemia, it is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to the southeast. The Czech Republic has a hilly landscape that covers an area of 78,871 square kilometers (30,452 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental and oceanic climate. The capital and largest city is Prague; other major cities and urban areas include Brno, Ostrava, Plzeň and Liberec.

Czech Republic
Česká republika (Czech)
Pravda vítězí (Czech)
"Truth prevails"
Kde domov můj (Czech)
"Where My Home Is"
Location of the Czech Republic (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark gray)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
50°05′N 14°28′E / 50.083°N 14.467°E / 50.083; 14.467
Official languageCzech
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Petr Pavel
Petr Fiala
Chamber of Deputies
c. 870
28 October 1918
1 January 1993
• Total
78,871 km2 (30,452 sq mi) (115th)
• Water (%)
2.16 (as of 2022)
• 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 10,900,555 (85th)
• 2021 census
Neutral increase 10,524,167
• Density
133/km2 (344.5/sq mi) (91st)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $539.318 billion (46th)
• Per capita
Increase $49,025 (39th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $335.243 billion (47th)
• Per capita
Increase $30,474 (37th)
Gini (2020)Negative increase 24.2
HDI (2022)Increase 0.895
very high (32nd)
CurrencyCzech koruna (CZK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatd. m. yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+420
ISO 3166 codeCZ

The Duchy of Bohemia was founded in the late 9th century under Great Moravia. It was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire in 1002 and became a kingdom in 1198. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, all of the Crown lands of Bohemia were gradually integrated into the Habsburg monarchy. Nearly a hundred years later, the Protestant Bohemian Revolt led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Crown lands became part of the Austrian Empire.

In the 19th century, the Czech lands became more industrialized, and in 1918 most of it became part of the First Czechoslovak Republic following the collapse of Austria-Hungary after World War I. Czechoslovakia was the only country in Central and Eastern Europe to remain a parliamentary democracy during the entirety of the interwar period. After the Munich Agreement in 1938, Nazi Germany systematically took control over the Czech lands.

Czechoslovakia was restored in 1945 and three years later became an Eastern Bloc communist state following a coup d'état in 1948. Attempts to liberalize the government and economy were suppressed by a Soviet-led invasion of the country during the Prague Spring in 1968. In November 1989, the Velvet Revolution ended communist rule in the country and restored democracy. On 31 December 1992, Czechoslovakia was peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

The Czech Republic is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced, high-income social market economy. It is a welfare state with a European social model, universal health care and free-tuition university education. It ranks 32nd in the Human Development Index. The Czech Republic is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Union, the OECD, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group.

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