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Blood sugar level

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I. Blood Sugar Levels and Measurement:
– Units: mmol/L in the UK, Commonwealth countries, and ex-USSR countries; mg/dL in the US, Germany, Japan, and other countries.
– Conversion factor between mmol/L and mg/dl for glucose is about 18.
– Normal fasting blood glucose levels for non-diabetics: 3.9 – 5.5 mmol/L (70 – 100 mg/dL).
– Fasting blood glucose target range for diabetics: 3.9 – 7.2 mmol/L (70 – 130 mg/dL).
Glucose homeostasis maintains blood sugar levels around 4.4 to 6.1 mmol/L (79 to 110 mg/dL).
Blood sugar levels for non-diabetics should be below 6.9 mmol/L (125 mg/dL).
– Various animals’ blood sugar ranges and reference values.
– Regulation of blood sugar by hormones like insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol.

II. Abnormalities in Blood Sugar:
– Hyperglycemia and its health risks, including heart disease, cancer, and nerve damage.
– Hyperglycemia management and the importance of monitoring blood sugar levels.
– ADA recommendations for hyperglycemia treatment.
– Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) causes, symptoms, and the need for quick restoration of blood glucose levels.

III. Glucose Measurement Techniques:
– Methods for measuring blood glucose levels: chemical and enzyme-specific methods.
– Conversion from whole-blood glucose to serum/plasma levels.
– Differences in glucose levels based on sample sources.
– Various measurement techniques like oxidation-reduction reactions and enzyme-specific methods.

IV. Clinical Correlation and Monitoring:
– Clinical tests related to blood glucose levels like fasting glucose level and glucose tolerance test.
– Error rates in blood glucose measurements and factors influencing blood glucose levels.
– Noninvasive monitoring methods like exhaled breath condensate for glucose detection.

V. Research and Resources:
– Surveys and epidemiological studies on blood sugar levels.
– Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for various species.
– Information on diabetes, glucose regulation, and management.
Blood sugar testing, monitoring, and factors affecting measurements.
– Further reading resources for a deeper understanding of blood sugar management.

Blood sugar level (Wikipedia)

The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, blood glucose level, or glycemia is the measure of glucose concentrated in the blood. The body tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis.

The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals. One of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted.

For a 70 kg (154 lb) human, approximately four grams of dissolved glucose (also called "blood glucose") is maintained in the blood plasma at all times. Glucose that is not circulating in the blood is stored in skeletal muscle and liver cells in the form of glycogen; in fasting individuals, blood glucose is maintained at a constant level by releasing just enough glucose from these glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscle in order to maintain homeostasis. Glucose can be transported from the intestines or liver to other tissues in the body via the bloodstream. Cellular glucose uptake is primarily regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Once inside the cell, the glucose can now act as an energy source as it undergoes the process of glycolysis.

In humans, properly maintained glucose levels are necessary for normal function in a number of tissues, including the human brain, which consumes approximately 60% of blood glucose in fasting, sedentary individuals. A persistent elevation in blood glucose leads to glucose toxicity, which contributes to cell dysfunction and the pathology grouped together as complications of diabetes.

Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day, and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimoles.

Abnormal persistently high glycemia is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from a variety of causes, and it is the most prominent disease related to the failure of blood sugar regulation. There are different methods of testing and measuring blood sugar levels.

Drinking alcohol causes an initial surge in blood sugar and later tends to cause levels to fall. Also, certain drugs can increase or decrease glucose levels.

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