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**Historical Background and Company Formation**:
– John Pemberton created Coca-Cola.
Pemberton’s French Wine Coca inspired by Vin Mariani and included kola nut.
– Candler sold Yum Yum and Koke before Coca-Cola.
– Candler aimed for legal claim to Coca-Cola.
– Pemberton’s sudden death led to Candler’s full control.
– Candler purchased exclusive rights from Charley after Pemberton’s death.
Cola syrup sold as a dietary supplement for an upset stomach.
– Coca-Cola certified kosher in 1935.
– Yellow cap indicates kosher for Passover.
– First outdoor wall advertisement for Coca-Cola painted in 1894 in Cartersville, Georgia.
– Coca-Cola was created in Havana after the Spanish-American War of 1898.

**Product Development and Varieties**:
– Coca-Cola’s original ingredients were coca leaves and kola nuts.
– Current formula remains a trade secret.
– Coca-Cola has inspired imitators.
– Other cola drinks under the Coke name include Diet Coke.
– Varieties like Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola and Coca-Cola Zero Sugar exist.
– Special versions with lemon, lime, and coffee have been introduced.
Coca-Cola Vanilla, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola with Lime, Coca-Cola Energy, Coca-Cola Peach are among the variants.
Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Cherry Vanilla, Coca-Cola Apple, Coca-Cola Cinnamon, Coca-Cola Strawberry are some unique flavors.

**Global Impact and Expansion**:
– Coca-Cola is sold in over 200 countries.
– Consumers drink over 1.8 billion company beverage servings daily.
– Ranked 87th in the 2018 Fortune 500 list.
– Ranked 6th in Interbrand’s best global brand study of 2020.
– Coca-Cola operates in over 200 countries.
– The company plans to invest $5 billion in its operations in India by 2020.
– Coca-Cola started selling sodas in 100% recycled plastic bottles in the US in 2021.

**Production and Distribution Model**:
– First bottling of Coca-Cola in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at Biedenharn Candy Company in 1894.
– Entrepreneurs Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead proposed the bottling idea in 1899.
– Chattanooga became the site of the first Coca-Cola bottling company.
– Coca-Cola follows a franchising model where bottlers produce the final drink.
– Independent bottlers produce almost half of the volume sold globally.
– Bottlers sweeten the drink according to local tastes.
– Coca-Cola stopped restocking Costco shelves due to a dispute over wholesale prices.

**Innovations and Product Marketing**:
– Coca-Cola introduced New Coke in 1985.
– Coca-Cola resumed operations in Iraq in 2005 after the Arab League boycott.
– Coca-Cola Classic name changed back to Coca-Cola in Canada in 2007.
– Coca-Cola plans to recycle one bottle for each sold by 2030.
– Coca-Cola resumed business in Myanmar in 2012 after 60 years.
– Various designer bottles and limited editions have been introduced over the years.
– New product innovations like Coca-Cola Energy Cherry, Coca-Cola Creations, and Coca-Cola Spiced have been launched.

Coca-Cola (Wikipedia)

Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink with a cola flavor manufactured by the Coca-Cola Company. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day. Coca-Cola ranked No. 87 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2020, Coca-Cola was the world's sixth most valuable brand.

Coca-Cola logo - see "Logo design" section
Coca-Cola bottle - see "Contour bottle design" section
Coca-Cola has retained many of its historical design features in modern glass bottles.
ManufacturerThe Coca-Cola Company
Country of origin United States
Region of originAtlanta, Georgia
IntroducedMay 8, 1886; 137 years ago (1886-05-08)
ColorCaramel E-150d
Related productsPepsi
RC Cola
Inca Kola
Kola Real
Cavan Cola
Est Cola

Originally marketed as a temperance drink and intended as a patent medicine, Coca-Cola was invented in the late 19th century by John Stith Pemberton in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1888, Pemberton sold the ownership rights to Asa Griggs Candler, a businessman, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the global soft-drink market throughout the 20th and 21st century. The name refers to two of its original ingredients: coca leaves and kola nuts (a source of caffeine). The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a trade secret; however, a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published. The secrecy around the formula has been used by Coca-Cola in its marketing as only a handful of anonymous employees know the formula. The drink has inspired imitators and created a whole classification of soft drink: colas.

The Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, which is then sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce (350 ml) can contains 38 grams (1.3 oz) of sugar (usually in the form of high-fructose corn syrup in North America). The bottlers then sell, distribute, and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores, restaurants, and vending machines throughout the world. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors.

The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name. The most common of these is Diet Coke, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Vanilla, and special versions with lemon, lime, and coffee. Coca-Cola was called Coca-Cola Classic from July 1985 to 2009, to distinguish it from "New Coke".

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