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**Historical Background**:
– Canada’s name originates from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word ‘kanata,’ referring to a village or settlement.
– Indigenous peoples have inhabited Canada for over 14,000 years, with diverse societies and cultures.
– European colonization led to a significant decline in the Indigenous population due to diseases, conflicts, and land loss.
– Various treaties and acts shaped the relationship between Indigenous peoples and European settlers.
– Canada’s early history includes colonization by European powers like France and Britain, leading to the formation of modern-day Canada in 1867.

**Geography and Climate**:
– Canada is the world’s second-largest country by total area, with diverse meteorological and geological regions.
– It has the longest coastline globally and shares the longest international land border with the United States.
– The country is divided into seven physiographic regions, with boreal forests covering vast areas and prairies supporting agriculture.
– Canada experiences a wide range of climates, from extremely cold temperatures in the north to mild and rainy conditions in coastal regions.
– Its biodiversity is rich, with 15 terrestrial and five marine ecozones, hosting over 800 species at risk and numerous conservation areas.

**Government and Politics**:
– Canada is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy with a tradition of liberalism.
– The country is officially bilingual in English and French at the federal level.
– Key political parties include the Liberal Party and Conservative Party, dominating the federal level.
– The reigning monarch appoints a governor general for federal royal duties, maintaining ties to the British monarchy.
– Canada’s political culture emphasizes social justice and democratic principles.

**Economy and Trade**:
– Canada has a high nominal per capita income globally, relying on abundant natural resources and well-developed trade networks.
– The country is recognized as a middle power in international affairs, pursuing multilateral solutions to global challenges.
– Economic activities are concentrated in regions like the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands and the Prairies.
– Canada’s economic growth has been shaped by factors like the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway and its participation in global conflicts.
– The Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River play a vital role in supporting economic activities and trade within the country.

**Modern Developments and Challenges**:
– Canada has undergone significant changes post-WWII, establishing official bilingualism, multiculturalism, and social programs.
– Achieving complete sovereignty with the Canada Act in 1982, the country has continued to evolve politically and socially.
– Challenges such as the Quiet Revolution in Quebec and referendums on sovereignty have impacted Canadian unity.
– Environmental issues like air pollution and climate change have affected Canada’s natural landscapes.
– The country’s commitment to social justice, government transparency, and gender equality continues to shape its contemporary identity and global image.

Canada (Wikipedia)

Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, making it the world's second-largest country by total area, with the world's longest coastline. Its border with the United States is the world's longest international land border. The country is characterized by a wide range of both meteorologic and geological regions. It is a sparsely inhabited country of 40 million people, the vast majority residing south of the 55th parallel in urban areas. Canada's capital is Ottawa and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Motto: A mari usque ad mare (Latin)
"From Sea to Sea"
Anthem: "O Canada"
A projection of North America with Canada highlighted in green
45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667
Largest cityToronto
Official languages
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Charles III
Mary Simon
Justin Trudeau
House of Commons
July 1, 1867
December 11, 1931
April 17, 1982
• Total area
9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) (2nd)
• Water (%)
11.76 (2015)
• Total land area
9,093,507 km2 (3,511,023 sq mi)
• 2024 Q1 estimate
Neutral increase 40,769,890 (36th)
• 2021 census
Neutral increase 36,991,981
• Density
4.2/km2 (10.9/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.379 trillion (16th)
• Per capita
Increase $59,813 (28th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Decrease $2.118 trillion (10th)
• Per capita
Decrease $53,247 (18th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 30.3
HDI (2022)Increase 0.935
very high (18th)
CurrencyCanadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zoneUTC−3.5 to −8
• Summer (DST)
UTC−2.5 to −7
Calling code+1

Indigenous peoples have continuously inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom, highlighted by the Statute of Westminster, 1931, and culminating in the Canada Act 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition. The country's head of government is the prime minister, who holds office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons and is "called upon" by the governor general, representing the monarch of Canada, the head of state. The country is a Commonwealth realm and is officially bilingual (English and French) in the federal jurisdiction. It is very highly ranked in international measurements of government transparency, quality of life, economic competitiveness, innovation, education and gender equality. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its history, economy, and culture.

A developed country, Canada has a high nominal per capita income globally and its advanced economy ranks among the largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is recognized as a middle power for its role in international affairs, with a tendency to pursue multilateral and international solutions. Canada's peacekeeping role during the 20th century has had a significant influence on its global image. Canada is part of multiple international organizations and forums.

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