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**Historical Development of Bangladesh:**
– Etymology of the term ‘Bangladesh’
– Ancient and Medieval Bengal periods
– Modern Bengal including independence and secular status
– Islamic influence and cultural evolution in Bengal
– European arrivals and British colonial rule in Bengal

**Economic and Political Evolution:**
– Challenges and international relations faced by Bangladesh
– Economic developments and social reforms in Bangladesh
– Formation of East Pakistan and political evolution
– Educational advancements and social developments in Bangladesh
– War of Independence and Bangladesh Liberation War

**International Recognition and Atrocities:**
– International recognition of Bangladesh post-independence
– Atrocities and aftermath of the Bangladesh Liberation War
– Official death toll and refugee crisis during the war
– Systematic targeting of Bengali elites and intellectuals
Pakistan’s expressions of regret for the events

**Islamic Bengal and Cultural Influence:**
– Maritime trade and early Muslim presence in Bengal
– Bengal under Sultanate and Mughal periods
– Influence of Islamic cosmology and syncretic movements
– Construction of mosques and Islamic educational institutions
– Persianate culture and European interactions in Bengal

**Partition and Union with Pakistan:**
– Partition of Bengal in 1947 and establishment of East Pakistan
– Political developments and military rule in Pakistan
– Formation of East Pakistan and political repression
– Union with Pakistan and educational advancements
– Economic discrimination in East Pakistan

Bangladesh (Wikipedia)

Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world and is among the most densely populated countries with a population of nearly 170 million in an area of 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi). Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the north, west, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast. To the south, it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor, and from China by the mountainous Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's political, financial, and cultural centre. Chittagong, the second-largest city, is the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal. The official language of Bangladesh is Bengali.

People's Republic of Bangladesh
গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ (Bengali)
Gôṇoprojātôntrī Bāṅglādesh
Anthem: আমার সোনার বাংলা
Amar Sonar Bangla
"My Golden Bengal"
March: নতুনের গান
Notuner Gaan
"The Song of Youth"
Slogan: জয় বাংলা
Joy Bangla
"Victory to Bengal"
Official Seal of the Government of Bangladesh
  • Seal of the Government of Bangladesh
and largest city
23°45′50″N 90°23′20″E / 23.76389°N 90.38889°E / 23.76389; 90.38889
Official language
and national language
Minority languages
Ethnic groups
98.2–99% Bengali
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Mohammed Shahabuddin
Sheikh Hasina
Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury
Obaidul Hassan
LegislatureJatiya Sangsad
26 March 1971
• Victory
16 December 1971
16 December 1972
• Total
148,460 km2 (57,320 sq mi) (92nd)
• Water (%)
• Land area
130,170 km2
• Water area
18,290 km2
• 2022 census
169,828,911 (8th)
• Density
1,165/km2 (3,017.3/sq mi) (12th)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.620 trillion (25th)
• Per capita
Increase $9,410 (126th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $455.166 billion (34th)
• Per capita
Increase $2,650 (137th)
Gini (2022)Negative increase 49.9
HDI (2022)Increase 0.670
medium (129th)
CurrencyTaka () (BDT)
Time zoneUTC+6 (BST)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+880
ISO 3166 codeBD

Bangladesh forms the sovereign part of the historic and ethnolinguistic region of Bengal, which was divided during the Partition of India in 1947 as part of a Muslim union with Pakistan, which it separated from in 1971. The country has a Bengali Muslim majority. Ancient Bengal was known as Gangaridai and was a bastion of pre-Islamic kingdoms. Muslim conquests after 1204 heralded the sultanate and Mughal periods, during which an independent Bengal Sultanate and a wealthy Mughal Bengal transformed the region into an important centre of regional affairs, trade, and diplomacy. After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the maximum extent of British Bengal stretched from the Khyber Pass in the west to Singapore in the east. The creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905 set a precedent for the emergence of Bangladesh. The All India Muslim League was founded in Dhaka in 1906. In 1940, the first Prime Minister of Bengal, A. K. Fazlul Huq, supported the Lahore Resolution. Before the partition of Bengal, a Bengali sovereign state was first proposed by premier H. S. Suhrawardy. A referendum and the announcement of the Radcliffe Line established the present-day territorial boundary.

In 1947, East Bengal became the most populous province in the Dominion of Pakistan. It was renamed as East Pakistan, with Dhaka becoming the country's legislative capital. The Bengali Language Movement in 1952; the East Bengali legislative election, 1954; the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état; the six point movement of 1966; and the 1970 Pakistani general election resulted in the rise of Bengali nationalism and pro-democracy movements. The refusal of the Pakistani military junta to transfer power to the Awami League, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, led to the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. The Mukti Bahini, aided by India, waged a successful armed revolution. The conflict saw the Bangladesh genocide and the massacre of pro-independence Bengali civilians, including intellectuals. The new state of Bangladesh became the first constitutionally secular state in South Asia in 1972. Islam was declared the state religion in 1988. In 2010, the Bangladesh Supreme Court reaffirmed secular principles in the constitution.

A middle power in the Indo-Pacific, Bangladesh is home to the sixth-most spoken language in the world, the third-largest Muslim-majority population in the world, and the second-largest economy in South Asia. It maintains the third-largest military in the region and is the largest contributor of personnel to UN peacekeeping operations. Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary republic based on the Westminster system. Bengalis make up 99% of the total population. The country consists of eight divisions, 64 districts and 495 subdistricts, as well as the world's largest mangrove forest. It hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world due to the Rohingya genocide. Bangladesh faces many challenges, particularly corruption, political instability, overpopulation and effects of climate change. Bangladesh has been a leader within the Climate Vulnerable Forum. It hosts the headquarters of BIMSTEC. It is a founding member of the SAARC, as well as a member of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and the Commonwealth of Nations.

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