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**Historical Background and Cultural Heritage**:
– Pakistan’s name coined by Choudhry Rahmat Ali in 1933, combining homelands like Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan.
– Rich historical background with early civilizations like the Indus Valley Civilization, Vedic Period, and influence of empires like the Achaemenid and Maurya.
– Islamic conquest in 711 CE by Muhammad ibn Qasim, spread of Islam, and influence of Muslim empires like Ghaznavid, Ghorid, and Delhi Sultanate.
– Colonial period under British rule, the Pakistan Movement leading to independence in 1947, and subsequent establishment as a modern state.
– Cultural heritage influenced by various civilizations, with Urdu as the national language, cricket as a popular sport, and traditional clothing like shalwar kameez.

**Political and Governance Evolution**:
– Transition from a monarchy within the Commonwealth of Nations to a republic in 1956, with notable leaders like Jinnah, Liaquat Ali Khan, and the establishment of the All-India Muslim League in 1906.
– Influence of Islamic leaders like Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani and Maulana Mawdudi advocating for an Islamic constitution and the inclusion of the Objectives Resolution in subsequent constitutions.
– Democratic setbacks due to martial law imposed by President Iskander Mirza, followed by a shift to a presidential system under General Ayub Khan in 1962.
– Democratic transitions marked by leaders like Benazir Bhutto, military coups like General Zia-ul-Haq’s, and the involvement in conflicts like the Kargil War and the US-led war on terrorism.
– Declaration of Pakistan as an Islamic Republic in the 1973 Constitution, implementation of Sharia law, and establishment of Islamic institutions under General Zia-ul-Haq.

**Economic Development and Trade Relations**:
– Economic milestones like the Green Revolution in the 1960s, growth in the textile industry, and development of infrastructure such as the Karakoram Highway.
– Challenges of poverty, corruption, and income inequality persist despite economic growth.
– China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as a significant project aimed at boosting infrastructure and trade.
– Pakistan’s economy ranked 23rd largest in the world by purchasing power parity, major industries include textiles, agriculture, and manufacturing.
– China as Pakistan’s largest trading partner, membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the significance of CPEC in enhancing economic ties.

**Geography, Environment, and Climate**:
– Pakistan’s diverse geography with coastal plains, mountains, deserts, and plateaus, sharing borders with Afghanistan, China, India, and Iran.
– Geopolitically significant location at the crossroads of South Asia, the Middle East, and Central Asia.
– Varied climate with four distinct seasons and varying rainfall patterns.
– Pakistan ranked as the fifteenth most water-stressed country.
– Diverse flora and fauna, supporting a wide range of trees and plants, unique ecosystems, and the markhor as the national animal.

**Foreign Relations and Global Influence**:
– Alignment with the United States during the Cold War, strategic alliance with China, and tensions with India over the Kashmir issue.
– Active membership in organizations like SAARC and OIC, and a key player in the Afghan peace process.
– Role in the Afghan peace process, and the influence of foreign relations on Pakistan’s strategic positioning.
– Role in the Bangladesh Liberation War and the aftermath leading to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto becoming president.
– Nuclear program initiation, economic growth under General Zia-ul-Haq, and involvement in conflicts like aiding mujahideen against the USSR in Afghanistan.

Pakistan (Wikipedia)

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the fifth-most populous country, with a population of over 241.5 million, having the second-largest Muslim population as of 2023. Islamabad is the nation's capital, while Karachi is its largest city and financial centre. Pakistan is the 33rd-largest country by area, 9th largest in Asia and the second-largest in South Asia. Bounded by the Arabian Sea on the south, the Gulf of Oman on the southwest, and the Sir Creek on the southeast, it shares land borders with India to the east; Afghanistan to the west; Iran to the southwest; and China to the northeast. It shares a maritime border with Oman in the Gulf of Oman, and is separated from Tajikistan in the northwest by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor.

Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • اسلامی جمہوریہ پاكستان (Urdu)
  • Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān
Motto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam
ایمان، اتحاد، نظم
"Faith, Unity, Discipline"
Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah
قَومی ترانہ
"The National Anthem"
Land controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; land claimed but not controlled shown in light green
Land controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; land claimed but not controlled shown in light green
33°41′30″N 73°03′00″E / 33.69167°N 73.05000°E / 33.69167; 73.05000
Largest cityKarachi
24°51′36″N 67°00′36″E / 24.86000°N 67.01000°E / 24.86000; 67.01000
Official languages
Native languagesOver 77 languages
Ethnic groups
See below
GovernmentFederal Islamic parliamentary republic
• President
Asif Ali Zardari
Shehbaz Sharif
Yusuf Raza Gilani
Ayaz Sadiq
Qazi Faez Isa
National Assembly
23 March 1940
14 August 1947
• Republic
23 March 1956
8 December 1958
16 December 1971
14 August 1973
• Total
881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi) (33rd)
• Water (%)
• 2023 census
241,499,431 (5th)
• Density
273.8/km2 (709.1/sq mi) (56th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.568 trillion (24th)
• Per capita
Increase $6,773 (138th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Decrease $340.636 billion (46th)
• Per capita
Decrease $1,471 (161st)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 31.6
HDI (2022)Increase 0.540
low (164th)
CurrencyPakistani rupee (₨) (PKR)
Time zoneUTC+05:00 (PKT)
DST is not observed
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+92
ISO 3166 codePK
Internet TLD

Pakistan is the site of several ancient cultures, including the 8,500-year-old Neolithic site of Mehrgarh in Balochistan, the Indus Valley civilisation of the Bronze Age, and the ancient Gandhara civilisation. The regions that comprise the modern state of Pakistan were the realm of multiple empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid, the Maurya, the Kushan, the Gupta; the Umayyad Caliphate in its southern regions, the Samma, the Hindu Shahis, the Shah Miris, the Ghaznavids, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughals, and most recently, the British Raj from 1858 to 1947.

Spurred by the Pakistan Movement, which sought a homeland for the Muslims of British India, and election victories in 1946 by the All-India Muslim League, Pakistan gained independence in 1947 after the Partition of the British Indian Empire, which awarded separate statehood to its Muslim-majority regions and was accompanied by an unparalleled mass migration and loss of life. Initially a Dominion of the British Commonwealth, Pakistan officially drafted its constitution in 1956, and emerged as a declared Islamic republic. In 1971, the exclave of East Pakistan seceded as the new country of Bangladesh after a nine-month-long civil war. In the following four decades, Pakistan has been ruled by governments whose descriptions, although complex, commonly alternated between civilian and military, democratic and authoritarian, relatively secular and Islamist. Pakistan elected a civilian government in 2008, and in 2010 adopted a parliamentary system with periodic elections.

Pakistan is considered a middle power nation, with the world's sixth-largest standing armed forces. It is a declared nuclear-weapons state, and is ranked amongst the emerging and growth-leading economies, with a large and rapidly-growing middle class. Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of significant economic and military growth as well as those of political and economic instability. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with similarly diverse geography and wildlife. The country continues to face challenges, including poverty, illiteracy, corruption, and terrorism. Pakistan is a member of the United Nations, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, and the Islamic Military Counter-Terrorism Coalition, and is designated as a major non-NATO ally by the United States.

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