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**Historical Evolution of Russia**:
– Russia’s early human settlements date back to the Oldowan period.
– Various invasions and rulers shaped Russia’s history, from the Gothic Kingdom of Oium to the Tsardom of Russia.
– Key events include the formation of Kievan Rus, the rise of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and the establishment of the Tsardom of Russia.
– Imperial Russia saw expansions under leaders like Peter the Great and Catherine II.
– Major historical milestones include the Great Northern War, the Crimean War, and the Bolshevik Revolution.

**Political Developments and Transitions**:
– The Russian Federation emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
– Vladimir Putin has been a dominant figure in Russian politics since the early 2000s.
– Russia’s political landscape has seen shifts towards authoritarianism and democratic backsliding.
– Notable periods include the constitutional monarchy, the World Wars, and the formation of the Soviet Union.
– Recent events like the invasion of Ukraine have further shaped Russia’s political trajectory.

**Cultural and Social Evolution**:
– The East Slavs emerged between the 3rd and 8th centuries CE, leading to the establishment of Kievan Rus.
– Russia’s cultural evolution includes the growth of the Russian Empire and the Russian Revolution of 1917.
– The country’s vast geography and diverse population have contributed to its rich cultural heritage.
– The development of feudalism, decentralization, and subsequent unification under Moscow shaped Russian society.
– Russia’s interactions with neighboring states and global powers have influenced its cultural identity.

**Economic Transformations and Challenges**:
– Russia transitioned to a market economy post-Soviet dissolution, leading to privatization and economic reforms.
– The rise of Russian oligarchs and economic instability characterized the post-Soviet period.
– Modernization efforts and economic stabilization have been ongoing, with varying degrees of success.
– Economic crises like the 1998 financial crisis and the 2022 invasion of Ukraine have posed significant challenges.
– The country’s economic trajectory has been influenced by global events, internal reforms, and political decisions.

**Geographical Significance and International Relations**:
– Russia spans Eastern Europe and North Asia, holding the title of the largest country in the world by area.
– The country shares land borders with fourteen nations and has a diverse geographical landscape.
– Russia’s international relations have been marked by conflicts with former Soviet states and other countries.
– Recent events like the invasion of Ukraine have strained Russia’s global standing and led to international condemnation.
– The country’s geographic location and political decisions continue to shape its role on the world stage.

Russia (Wikipedia)

Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and North Asia. It is the largest country in the world by area, extending across eleven time zones and sharing land borders with fourteen countries. It is the world's ninth-most populous country and Europe's most populous country. The country's capital as well as its largest city is Moscow. Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city and cultural capital. Other major cities in the country include Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Chelyabinsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kazan, Krasnodar and Rostov-on-Don.

Russian Federation
Российская Федерация (Russian)
Государственный гимн Российской Федерации
Gosudarstvennyy gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii
"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Recognized territory of Russia is shown in dark green; claimed and disputed territory is shown in light green.
and largest city
55°45′21″N 37°37′02″E / 55.75583°N 37.61722°E / 55.75583; 37.61722
Official and national languageRussian
Recognised regional languages35 regional official languages
Ethnic groups
(2021; including Russia and Crimea)
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential republic under an authoritarian dictatorship
• President
Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
Valentina Matviyenko
Vyacheslav Volodin
Pyotr Serkov (acting)
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
16 January 1547
2 November 1721
15 March 1917
30 December 1922
12 June 1990
12 December 1991
12 December 1993
8 December 1999
• Total
17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi) (within internationally recognised borders)
• Water (%)
13 (including swamps)
• 2022 estimate
  • Neutral decrease 147,182,123 (2021 Census)
  • (including Crimea)
  • Neutral decrease 144,699,673
  • (excluding Crimea)
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (187th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $5.056 trillion (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $35,310 (60th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Decrease $1.862 trillion (11th)
• Per capita
Decrease $13,006 (72nd)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 36.0
HDI (2022)Increase 0.821
very high (56th)
CurrencyRuble () (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +12
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD

The East Slavs emerged as a recognised group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries CE. The first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', arose in the 9th century, and in 988, it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire. Rus' ultimately disintegrated, with the Grand Duchy of Moscow growing to become the Tsardom of Russia. By the early 18th century, Russia had vastly expanded through conquest, annexation, and the efforts of Russian explorers, developing into the Russian Empire, which remains the third-largest empire in history. However, with the Russian Revolution in 1917, Russia's monarchic rule was abolished and eventually replaced by the Russian SFSR—the world's first constitutionally socialist state. Following the Russian Civil War, the Russian SFSR established the Soviet Union with three other Soviet republics, within which it was the largest and principal constituent. At the expense of millions of lives, the Soviet Union underwent rapid industrialisation in the 1930s and later played a decisive role for the Allies in World War II by leading large-scale efforts on the Eastern Front. With the onset of the Cold War, it competed with the United States for global ideological influence. The Soviet era of the 20th century saw some of the most significant Russian technological achievements, including the first human-made satellite and the first human expedition into outer space.

In 1991, the Russian SFSR emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as the independent Russian Federation. A new constitution was adopted, which established a federal semi-presidential system. Since the turn of the century, Russia's political system has been dominated by Vladimir Putin, under whom the country has experienced democratic backsliding and a shift towards authoritarianism. Russia has been militarily involved in a number of conflicts in former Soviet states and other countries, including its war with Georgia in 2008 and annexation of Crimea in 2014 from neighbouring Ukraine, followed by the further annexation of four other regions in 2022 during an ongoing invasion.

Internationally, Russia ranks among the lowest in measurements of democracy, human rights and freedom of the press; the country also has high levels of perceived corruption. The Russian economy ranks 11th by nominal GDP, relying heavily on its abundant natural resources, and 68th by GDP per capita. Its mineral and energy sources are the world's largest, and its figures for oil production and natural gas production rank highly globally. Russia possesses the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons and has the third-highest military expenditure. The country is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council; a member state of the G20, SCO, BRICS, APEC, OSCE, and WTO; and the leading member state of post-Soviet organisations such as CIS, CSTO, and EAEU/EEU. Russia is home to 30 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

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