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**Historical Background:**
– Evidence of human settlement in Ukraine dates back to 32,000 BC.
– Various ancient cultures thrived in Ukraine, including the Neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillia culture and the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
– Greek, Roman, and Byzantine colonies were established on the Black Sea coast.
– Kievan Rus, with Varangians playing a significant role, reached its peak during the 10th and 11th centuries.
– The Mongol invasions in the mid-13th century devastated Kievan Rus.
– The Cossack Hetmanate emerged in the mid-17th century, led by figures like Bohdan Khmelnytsky.

**Modern Era and Independence:**
– Ukraine gained independence in 1991 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
– A new constitution was adopted in 1996.
– The Euromaidan demonstrations in 2014 led to a change in government.
Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014 led to conflict in eastern Ukraine.
– Ukraine continues to seek closer ties with the US, EU, and NATO.

**Geography and Demographics:**
– Ukraine is the second-largest European country after Russia.
– It shares borders with several countries and has coastlines along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.
– Kyiv is the capital and largest city of Ukraine.
– The official language is Ukrainian, with Russian widely spoken in some regions.
– The country’s population has diverse historical and cultural influences.

**Soviet Era and World War II Impact:**
– Soviet policies, including Ukrainisation and industrialization, significantly shaped Ukraine.
World War II saw Ukraine heavily impacted, with significant losses and resistance against Axis forces.
– The Ukrainian SSR played a crucial role in the Soviet Union during and after the war.
– The Ukrainian Insurgent Army emerged as a significant force during and after World War II.
– The post-war period saw Ukraine’s recovery efforts and its role in the United Nations.

**Cultural and Territorial Evolution:**
– Ukrainian nationalism and cultural renaissance emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries.
– The territorial evolution of Ukraine saw changes through various historical events.
– The impact of World War II on Ukraine included significant losses and resistance movements.
– Post-war Soviet Ukraine underwent reconstruction and became a leader in industrial production.
– The path to independence, fueled by nationalist sentiments, culminated in Ukraine becoming a founding member of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Ukraine (Wikipedia)

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest European country after Russia, which borders it to the east and northeast. It also borders Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; and Romania and Moldova to the southwest; with a coastline along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov to the south and southeast. Kyiv is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Kharkiv, Dnipro and Odesa. Ukraine's official language is Ukrainian; Russian is also widely spoken, especially in the east and south.

Україна (Ukrainian)
Anthem: Державний Гімн України
Derzhavnyi Himn Ukrainy
"State Anthem of Ukraine"

Russian-occupied territories of Ukraine
shown in light green
Territory of Ukraine shown in dark green
and largest city
49°N 32°E / 49°N 32°E / 49; 32
  • Official language
  • and national language
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Volodymyr Zelenskyy
Denys Shmyhal
Ruslan Stefanchuk
LegislatureVerkhovna Rada
18 August 1649
20 November 1917
10 March 1919
24 October 1945
24 August 1991
28 June 1996
• Total
603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi) (45th)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
Decrease 33.2 million (36th)
• Density
60.9/km2 (157.7/sq mi) (126th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $474.773 billion
• Per capita
Increase $14,303
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $173.413 billion
• Per capita
Increase $5,224
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 25.6
HDI (2022)Decrease 0.734
high (100th)
CurrencyHryvnia (₴) (UAH)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+380
ISO 3166 codeUA
Internet TLD

During the Middle Ages, Ukraine was the site of early Slavic expansion and the area later became a key centre of East Slavic culture under the state of Kievan Rus', which emerged in the 9th century. The state eventually disintegrated into rival regional powers and was ultimately destroyed by the Mongol invasions of the 13th century. The area was then contested, divided, and ruled by a variety of external powers for the next 600 years, including the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Austrian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Tsardom of Russia. The Cossack Hetmanate emerged in central Ukraine in the 17th century marked on maps as "Ukraine, land of the Cossacks", but was partitioned between Russia and Poland, and ultimately absorbed by the Russian Empire. Ukrainian nationalism developed and, following the Russian Revolution in 1917, the short-lived Ukrainian People's Republic was formed. The Bolsheviks consolidated control over much of the former empire and established the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union when it was formed in 1922. In the early 1930s, millions of Ukrainians died in the Holodomor, a human-made famine. The German occupation during World War II in Ukraine was devastating, with 7 million Ukrainian civilians killed, including most Ukrainian Jews.

Ukraine gained independence in 1991 as the Soviet Union dissolved, and declared itself neutral. A new constitution was adopted in 1996. A series of mass demonstrations, known as the Euromaidan, led to the establishment of a new government in 2014 after a revolution. Russia then unilaterally annexed Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula, and pro-Russian unrest culminated in a war in the Donbas between Russian-backed separatists and government forces in eastern Ukraine. Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022. Since the outbreak of war with Russia, Ukraine has continued to seek closer ties with the United States, European Union, and NATO.

Ukraine is a unitary state and its system of government is a semi-presidential republic. A developing country, it is the poorest country in Europe by nominal GDP per capita and corruption remains a significant issue. However, due to its extensive fertile land, pre-war Ukraine was one of the largest grain exporters in the world. It is a founding member of the United Nations, as well as a member of the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, and the OSCE. It is in the process of joining the European Union and has applied to join NATO.

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