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Georgia (country)

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**Historical Background:**
– Georgia, known as Sakartvelo, has ancient roots dating back thousands of years.
– The region served as a refugium throughout the Pleistocene era, with continuous settlements from the Middle Paleolithic period.
– Notable kingdoms like Colchis and Iberia emerged during Georgia’s classical era.
– The medieval unification of Georgia saw the rise of the Bagrationi dynasty and the unification of various Georgian lands.
– The Golden Age under rulers like David IV and Queen Tamar marked a period of military victories, territorial expansion, and cultural renaissance.

**Political Evolution:**
– Georgia became part of the Russian Empire in the 19th century before gaining independence in 1918.
– Soviet rule was established in 1921, lasting until Georgia regained independence in 1991.
– The Rose Revolution in 2003 brought political changes, leading to a pro-Western stance and economic reforms.
– Ongoing territorial conflicts with Abkhazia and South Ossetia have posed challenges to Georgia’s stability.
– The Georgian Dream government, founded by Bidzina Ivanishvili, has been in power since 2012, implementing constitutional reforms and winning elections.

**International Relations and Diplomacy:**
– Georgia has pursued Euro-Atlantic aspirations, aiming for EU and NATO membership.
– The country has signed Association Agreements with the EU and established the Georgia-NATO Interparliamentary Council.
– Georgia’s pro-Western stance has strained relations with Russia, leading to diplomatic tensions.
– Notable agreements include the Substantial NATO-Georgia Package (SNGP) guiding relations since 2014.
– Romania was the first country to recognize Georgia’s independence, and Georgia has faced diplomatic crises with Russia.

**Economic Development and Challenges:**
– Georgia’s economy has seen growth and reforms, with tourism emerging as a significant sector.
– Challenges such as corruption and political stability have been persistent issues.
– The country experienced significant economic improvements despite facing alienation from the Soviet system during perestroika.
– The government has worked on handling changes and implementing reforms to strengthen the economy.
– Georgia has become a top destination for Russian exiles following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.

**Government Structure and Democratic Trajectory:**
– Georgia operates as a parliamentary republic with a President and Prime Minister leading the government.
– The Cabinet of Georgia is headed by the Prime Minister, and the Parliament is unicameral with 150 members.
– Georgia aims for democratic standards, with varying assessments on its political freedom status.
– The country has witnessed improvements in democracy after the 2012-13 power transfer, but concerns about backsliding have been raised.
– Recent political events, including elections, accusations of fraud, and EU-brokered agreements, have shaped Georgia’s democratic trajectory.

Georgia (country) (Wikipedia)

Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო, romanized: sakartvelo, IPA: [sakʰartʰʷelo] ) is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and West Asia. It is part of the Caucasus region, bounded by the Black Sea to the west, Russia to the north and northeast, Turkey to the southwest, Armenia to the south, and Azerbaijan to the southeast. Georgia covers an area of 69,700 square kilometres (26,900 sq mi). It has a population of 3.7 million, of which over a third live in the capital and largest city, Tbilisi. Georgians, who are indigenous to the region, constitute a majority and a titular nation in Georgia.

საქართველო (Georgian)
ძალა ერთობაშია
Dzala ertobashia
"Strength is in Unity"
Georgia in dark green; uncontrolled
in light green
and largest city
41°43′N 44°47′E / 41.717°N 44.783°E / 41.717; 44.783
Official languagesGeorgian
Recognised regional languagesAbkhaz
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Salome Zourabichvili
Irakli Kobakhidze
Shalva Papuashvili
Establishment history
• Colchis and Iberia
13th c. BC – 580 AD
12 September 1801
26 May 1918
12 February 1921
25 February 1921
• Independence from the Soviet Union
 • Declared
 • Finalized

9 April 1991
26 December 1991
24 August 1995
• Total
69,700 km2 (26,900 sq mi) (119th)
• 2022 estimate
Neutral decrease 3,688,647
4,012,104 (126th)
• 2014 census
Neutral decrease 3,713,804
• Density
57.6/km2 (149.2/sq mi) (137th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $82.210 billion (101st)
• Per capita
Increase $22,357 (75th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $30.023 billion (112th)
• Per capita
Increase $8,165 (86th)
Gini (2021)Positive decrease 34.2
HDI (2022)Increase 0.814
very high (60th)
CurrencyGeorgian lari (₾) (GEL)
Time zoneUTC+4 (Georgia Time GET)
Driving sideright
Calling code+995
ISO 3166 codeGE
Internet, .გე

Georgia has been inhabited since prehistoric times, hosting the world's earliest known sites of winemaking, gold mining, and textiles. The classical era saw the emergence of several kingdoms, such as Colchis and Iberia, that formed the nucleus of the modern Georgian state. In the early fourth century, Georgians officially adopted Christianity, which contributed to their gradual unification and ethnogenesis. In the High Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar. The kingdom subsequently declined and disintegrated under the hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, and Persia, before being gradually annexed into the Russian Empire starting in 1801.

After the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia briefly emerged as an independent republic under German protectorate, but was invaded and annexed by the Soviet Union in 1922, becoming one of its constituent republics. In the 1980s, an independence movement grew quickly, leading to Georgia's secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For much of the subsequent decade, the country endured economic crises, political instability, and secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Following the peaceful Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia strongly pursued a pro-Western foreign policy, introducing a series of democratic and economic reforms aimed at integration into the European Union and NATO. The country's Western orientation soon led to worsening relations with Russia, which culminated in the Russo-Georgian War of 2008 and continued Russian occupation of parts of Georgia.

Georgia is a representative democracy governed as a unitary parliamentary republic. It is a developing country with a very high Human Development Index. Economic reforms since independence have led to higher levels of economic freedom, as well as reductions in corruption indicators, poverty, and unemployment. Georgia is only the second country in the world to legalize cannabis, and the only former socialist state to do so. The country is a member of international organizations, including the Council of Europe, Eurocontrol, BSEC, GUAM, Energy Community. As part of the Association Trio, Georgia is a candidate for EU membership.

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