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Tonic water

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– History:
– Spanish used quinine from Cinchona trees in the 17th century
– Medicinal quinine was recommended in 19th century British India
– Tonic water was created in 1858 by Erasmus Bond
Gin and tonic originated in British colonial India
– First known record of gin and tonic in 1868 in the Oriental Sporting Magazine

Quinine content:
– Modern tonic waters contain less quinine
– Tonic water is often sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup
– Some tonic waters contain artificial sweeteners
– FDA limits quinine content in the US to 83ppm
Quinine was previously recommended for leg cramps until about 2010

– Use:
– Tonic water is a popular mixer for cocktails like gin and tonic
Vodka tonic is another common cocktail
– Tonic water with lemon or lime is known as bitter lemon or bitter lime
Espresso and tonic is a trendy coffee drink since 2007
– Tonic water is used in various cocktails globally

– Negative effects:
– Tonic water can cause fixed eruptions due to quinine
– Repeated intake of tonic water can lead to severe skin reactions
– Cases of fixed eruptions have been linked to tonic water consumption
– Symptoms of fixed eruptions include pigmented macules and high fever
– FDA cautions against using quinine for off-label leg cramp treatment

– Fluorescence:
Quinine in tonic water fluoresces under ultraviolet light
Quinine visibly fluoresces in direct sunlight against a dark background
Quinine molecules release light energy instead of heat
– Molecules eventually return to a ground state and stop glowing
Quinine fluorescence is a unique property of tonic water

Tonic water (Wikipedia)

Tonic water (or Indian tonic water) is a carbonated soft drink in which quinine is dissolved. Originally used as a prophylactic against malaria, nowadays tonic water usually has a significantly lower quinine content and is often sweetened. It is consumed for its distinctive bitter flavor and is frequently used in mixed drinks, particularly in gin and tonic.

Under ultraviolet light, the quinine in tonic water fluoresces, as seen with this bottle of Canada Dry tonic water.
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