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**History of Espresso**:
– The first espresso machine was created in France in 1822 by Louis Bernard Rabaut.
– Edouard Loysel de Santais presented a café express machine in 1855.
– Angelo Moriondo patented a steam-driven coffee device in 1884.
– Luigi Bezzera patented the first espresso machine in 1901.
– Desiderio Pavoni began industrial production of the espresso machine in 1903.

**Spread and Popularity**:
– Espresso consumption rose in Italy with industrialization.
– Italians spread espresso culture to East African colonies.
– Espresso became popular in the English-speaking world, notably in the United States and the United Kingdom.
– Espresso culture developed in the United States, Italy, Germany, and the Middle East.

**Characteristics and Process**:
– Espresso is thicker than coffee brewed by other methods.
– The pressurized brewing process results in concentrated flavors and chemicals in espresso.
– Espresso has more caffeine per ml than most coffee beverages.
– Espresso is made by forcing hot water through finely ground compacted coffee under high pressure.
– Crema, a dense foam layer on top of espresso, is formed by high-pressure water dissolving carbon dioxide in coffee.

**Variables in Espresso Making**:
– The main variables in a shot of espresso are the size and length.
– Cafés may have standardized shot sizes but vary the number of shots in espresso-based drinks.
– The size can be single, double, or triple, with corresponding ground coffee amounts.
– Filter basket size and grind may need to be adjusted for different shot sizes.

**Espresso-based Drinks and Nutrition**:
– Espresso is blended with milk in drinks like macchiato, cappuccino, flat white, and latte.
– Espresso contains significant levels of dietary mineral magnesium, B vitamins niacin and riboflavin, and around 212mg of caffeine per 100 grams of liquid brewed coffee.
– Other milk-based espresso drinks include cortado and galão.
– Espresso and water combinations include americano and long black.

Espresso (Wikipedia)

Espresso (/ɛˈsprɛs/ , Italian: [eˈsprɛsso]) is a coffee-brewing method in which a small amount of nearly boiling water is forced under pressure through finely ground coffee beans.

A cup of espresso from Ventimiglia, Italy
Country of origin Italy
ColorBlack or brown
Coffee, brewed, espresso, restaurant-prepared
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy8.4 kJ (2.0 kcal)
Riboflavin (B2)
0.2 mg
Niacin (B3)
5.2 mg
80 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water97.8 g
Theobromine0 mg
Caffeine212 mg

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults, except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.

Originating from Italy, the French also made significant contributions[vague] via the invention of coffee makers, predecessors of today's espresso machines.

Espresso can be made with a wide variety of coffee beans and roast degrees, and numerous espresso-based drinks exist, often blending in milk. It is one of the world's most popular coffee brewing methods.[citation needed]

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