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**Historical Evolution of Brewing:**
– Alulu beer receipt from ancient Sumerian brewery in 2050 BC
Brewing in Neolithic Europe
Brewing initially as domestic work, later industrialized
– Emergence of breweries in monasteries and Christian institutions
– Oldest functioning breweries like Weihenstephan and Weltenburg Abbey
– Technological advances during the Industrial Revolution

**Technological Advances in Brewing:**
– Contributions of James Watt, Carl von Linde, and Louis Pasteur
– Use of steam engines, refrigeration machines, and pure yeast cultures
– Importance of hydrometers and thermometers in brewing
– Significance of stainless steel in modern breweries
– Quality control analyses in modern brewing plants

**Brewing Process and Equipment:**
– 9-step brewing process including milling, malting, mashing, and boiling
– Importance of mashing, lautering, and fermentation
– Modern brewing equipment made of stainless steel
– Heating methods using pressurized steam
– Cooling techniques using cooling jackets on tanks

**Fermentation and Conditioning:**
– Process of fermentation and its importance in beer production
– Various fermentation tanks used in breweries
– Conditioning of beer in tanks with cooling jackets
– Use of active yeast culture for fresh beer
– Different methods of conditioning and filtering for beer stabilization

**Brewery Industry and Practices:**
– Range of brewing companies from small to multinational conglomerates
– Growth in brewery employment in the U.S.
– Types of breweries like microbreweries, brewpubs, and macrobreweries
– Contract brewing and gypsy brewing practices
– Role of head brewer/brewmaster and their qualifications

Brewery (Wikipedia)

A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant. The commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC; in ancient Mesopotamia, brewers derived social sanction and divine protection from the goddess Ninkasi. Brewing was initially a cottage industry, with production taking place at home; by the ninth century, monasteries and farms would produce beer on a larger scale, selling the excess; and by the eleventh and twelfth centuries larger, dedicated breweries with eight to ten workers were being built.

Kettles in a modern Trappist brewery

The diversity of size in breweries is matched by the diversity of processes, degrees of automation, and kinds of beer produced in breweries. A brewery is typically divided into distinct sections, with each section reserved for one part of the brewing process.

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