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**1. Cider Production Process:**

– Scratting and Pressing:
– Apples are ground into pulp for cider making.
– Traditional circular cider presses are still used in some regions.
– Pulp is transferred to a cider press to extract juice.
Juice is strained and put into vats or casks.
– Remaining solids (pomace) can be used for various purposes.

Fermentation of ciders is similar to wine fermentation.
– Yeasts like Saccharomyces cerevisiae convert sugars into ethanol.
Fermentation occurs at 4–16°C for slower fermentation.
– Organoleptic compounds affect cider quality.
– Cider can be matured for up to three years.

– Blending and Bottling:
– Ciders from different apple varieties may be blended for market taste.
– Extra sugar is added for sparkle before bottling.
Champagne method can be used for higher quality ciders.
– Home brewers may use beer bottles for natural carbonation.
– Cider can be ready to drink after a three-month fermentation period.

**2. Cider Chemistry and Ingredients:**

– Flavour Compounds:
– Tannins are crucial for cider flavor.
– Tannins control astringency and bitterness.
– Tannins are important for cider quality.
– Perfecting tannin content is crucial for cider success.

– Apples to Cider:
– Sulfur dioxide is added to inhibit spoilage bacteria in cider-making.
– The amount of sulfur dioxide added depends on the juice’s pH level.
Nitrogen is crucial for yeast growth and fermentation in cider.
Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast to ferment sugars.
– Orchards with nitrogen-rich fertilizers produce apples with higher YAN levels.

– Acids in Cider:
– Tannins in apples vary based on the type of cider apple used.
– Malic acid is the primary acid in apples and contributes to tart flavors.
– Lactic acid is formed during fermentation, reducing acidity in cider.
– Citric acid can be added post-fermentation for taste.
– Ciders typically have a pH between 3.3 and 4.1.

**3. Cider Styles and Varieties:**

– Appearance and types:
– Ciders vary from dry to sweet in flavor.
– Appearance ranges from cloudy to clear.
– Colors range from almost colorless to amber to brown.
– Clarity and color depend on filtering between pressing and fermentation.
– Sparkling and still ciders are produced; sparkling is more common.

– Cider styles:
– Modern ciders are made from culinary apples.
– Heritage ciders are made from specific apple varieties.
– Style historically depended on available resources.
– English cider was drier with higher alcohol content.
– French cider was sweeter with low alcohol content.

– Specialty Style Ciders:
– Specialty styles include fruit, hopped, spiced, wood-aged, sour, and iced ciders.
– Fruit ciders have fruits or juices like cherries and blueberries added before or after fermentation.
– Hopped cider is fermented with hops like Cascade, Citra, Galaxy, and Mosaic.
– Spiced ciders have spices like cinnamon and ginger added during fermentation.
– Wood-aged ciders are fermented or aged in various wood barrels for woody flavors.

**4. Yeast in Cider Production:**

Yeast Selection for Fermentation:
– Yeasts selected based on ability to ferment at specific sugar concentrations, temperatures, or pH.
– Producers may choose yeasts with killer factors to out-compete other strains.
– Some yeasts selected for contributing mouthfeel or specific aromas to cider.
Yeast characteristics typically outlined in manuals from companies.
– Different yeast strains impact the flavor and aroma of the final product.

– Wild Fermentations:
– Autochthonous yeast strains endemic to specific cider production locations.
– Indigenous yeasts can spontaneously initiate fermentation without added strains.
– Wild yeast populations include species like Saccharomyces and Candida.
– Native yeast populations influenced by climatic conditions and apple variety.
– Unique autochthonous yeast populations contribute to distinct cider flavors.

– Role of Yeast in Cider Production:
Yeast used for secondary fermentation in sparkling cider production.
– Selection based on properties like tolerance to pressure and temperature.
– Non-Saccharomyces yeasts may release additional flavor compounds.
– Some yeast species considered spoilage microbes due to off odors.
– Brettanomyces species produce volatile phenols with distinct aromas.

**5. History and Geography of Cider:**

– Etymology:
– The term ‘cider’ originated in Middle English.
– Initially referred to as ‘sicer’ or ‘ciser’ for strong drink.
– Evolved to ‘cidre’ for liquor made from fruit juice.
– Borrowed from Old French and other Romance languages.
– By the 19th century, cider specifically meant apple juice.

– Geography and origins:
– Cider dates back to Julius Caesar’s discovery in Britain in 55 BCE.
– Ciders are categorized into standard and specialty styles.
– Production historically used crab apples in Western Europe and Britain.
– English cider used bittersweet crab apples.
– French cider used sweeter apples and the keeving process.

Cider (Wikipedia)

Cider (/ˈsdər/ SY-dər) is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples. Cider is widely available in the United Kingdom (particularly in the West Country) and Ireland. The UK has the world's highest per capita consumption, as well as the largest cider-producing companies. Ciders from the South West of England are generally higher in alcoholic content. Cider is also popular in many Commonwealth countries, such as India, South Africa, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. As well as the UK and its former colonies, cider is popular in Portugal (mainly in Minho and Madeira), France (particularly Normandy and Brittany), Friuli, and northern Spain (specifically Asturias and Basque Country). Germany also has its own types of cider with Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse producing a particularly tart version known as Apfelwein. In the U.S. and Canada, varieties of alcoholic cider are often called hard cider to distinguish it from non-alcoholic apple cider or "sweet cider", also made from apples. In Canada, cider cannot contain less than 2.5% or over 13% absolute alcohol by volume.

Cider, in the traditional Hessian "ribbed" glass
Cider jugs. Somerset, England

The juice of most varieties of apple, including crab apples, can be used to make cider, but cider apples are best. The addition of sugar or extra fruit before a second fermentation increases the ethanol content of the resulting beverage. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% to 8.5% ABV or more in traditional English ciders, and 3.5% to 12% in continental ciders. In UK law, it must contain at least 35% apple juice (fresh or from concentrate), although CAMRA (the Campaign for Real Ale) says that "real cider" must be at least 90% fresh apple juice. In the US, there is a 50% minimum. In France, cider must be made solely from apples.

In 2014, a study found that a 1-US-pint (470 ml) bottle of mass-market cider contained five teaspoons (20.5 g) of sugar, nearly the amount the WHO recommends as an adult's daily allowance of added sugar, and 5–10 times the amount of sugar in lager or ale.

Perry is a similar product to cider made by fermenting pear juice. When distilled, cider turns into fruit brandy.

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