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– Urea Production:
– Carbonation of ammonia is a step in urea production.
– Worldwide production capacity in 2020 was about 180 million tonnes.
– Urea is a nitrogen source for plants.
– Urea production plants are usually near ammonia manufacturing sites.
– Ammonium carbamate decomposes into urea in the conversion process.

– Solubility:
– Henry’s law relates CO2 gas pressure to its solubility.
– Henry’s law constant (K) increases with temperature.
– Carbonation increases as temperature decreases.
– Decreased CO2 pressure or increased mole fraction in solution enhances carbonation.

– References:
– Impregnation or treatment with CO2 converts into a carbonate.
– Urea production statistics are available at
– Structural characterization of zinc bicarbonate is relevant to carbonic anhydrase.
– Urea details are in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.
– Henry’s Law is a key concept in solubility of gases.

– Categories:
– Related categories include inorganic chemistry and transition metals.
– Coordination complexes are also part of the topic.
– Hidden categories may include articles with short descriptions.
– Short descriptions differ from Wikidata.
– The content is related to carbonation.

– External Links:
– Further information on carbonation can be found at ChemEngineering.
– The Oxford English Dictionary defines carbonation.
– A study by Sattler and Parkin discusses zinc bicarbonate compounds.
– Meessen’s work in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia covers urea.
– For historical versions of the content, visit the Wikipedia page.

Carbonation (Wikipedia)

Carbonation is the chemical reaction of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid. In chemistry, the term is sometimes used in place of carboxylation, which refers to the formation of carboxylic acids.

In inorganic chemistry and geology, carbonation is common. Metal hydroxides (MOH) and metal oxides (M'O) react with CO2 to give bicarbonates and carbonates:

MOH + CO2 → M(HCO3)
M'O + CO2 → M'CO3
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