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Cider apple

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**1. Cider Apple Classification Systems:**
– Long Ashton Research Station classification system established in 1903 in England based on tannin and malic acid percentages.
– French and Spanish systems include categories like Douce, Amere, Acido, etc.
– Additional factors for classification include pH, polyphenol composition, YAN, and ºBrix.
– US cider apples grown in specific regions like Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, and Northwest.

**2. Cider Apple Cultivation and Production:**
– Most US ciders made from culled dessert apples.
– Lack of systematic classification for North American apple cultivars for cider-making.
– European ciders use high-tannin bittersweets and bittersharps.
– Limited availability of high-tannin cultivars in the US.

**3. Cider Apple Quality and Styles:**
– Foam characteristics and sensory profiles determine cider quality.
– Various regional cider styles exist in different countries.
– UK has broad cider styles based on apple types.
– Single varietal cider cultivars gaining popularity.

**4. Cider Apple Composition and Orchard Design:**
– Polyphenols and tannins crucial for astringency and color in cider apples.
– Traditional orchards uncommon, with modern high-density orchard systems emerging.
– Different tree types and planting systems utilized for cider apple cultivation.

**5. Orchard Management and Research:**
– High-density planting and efficient training systems like tall spindle used for orchard management.
– Sustainable practices essential for apple production.
– Various studies and publications on cider apple cultivation, polyphenol profiles, antioxidant capacity, and sustainable production practices.

Cider apple (Wikipedia)

Cider apples are a group of apple cultivars grown for their use in the production of cider (referred to as "hard cider" in the United States). Cider apples are distinguished from "cookers" and "eaters", or dessert apples, by their bitterness or dryness of flavour, qualities which make the fruit unpalatable but can be useful in cidermaking. Some apples are considered to occupy more than one category.

Cider apples ripening in Herefordshire

In the United Kingdom, the Long Ashton Research Station categorised cider apples in 1903 into four main types according to the proportion of tannins and malic acid in the fruit. For cider production, it is important that the fruit contains high sugar levels which encourage fermentation and raise the final alcohol levels. Cider apples therefore often have higher sugar levels than dessert and cooking apples. It is also considered important for cider apples to contribute tannins, which add depth to the finished cider's flavour.

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