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White wine

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**Historical Development of White Wine:**
– White wine production dates back at least 4,000 years.
– Romans favored white wine for banquets and prestige.
– Monks preserved viticulture knowledge during the Middle Ages.
– Differentiation between wines for commoners and aristocracy emerged in the 13th century.
– European vines were planted in America, influencing wine production in various countries.
– Development of Tokaji wine in Hungary due to noble rot discovery.
– Dom Perignon credited with creating champagne in a northern vineyard.
Champagne’s global expansion in the 18th century.
– Importance of champagne in European courts and at diplomatic tables.
– Industrial Revolution’s impact on wine production and market expansion.

**Varieties, Production, and Usage of White Wine:**
– White wine is fermented without skin contact.
– Varieties include Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, and Riesling.
– Sparkling white wines retain carbon dioxide from fermentation.
– White wines are used as aperitifs, for cooking, and with desserts.
– White wines are often considered more refreshing and lighter than red wines.
– Acidity, aroma, and ability to soften meat make white wines versatile.
– Dry white wine is the most common type.
– Sweet wines are produced by interrupting fermentation.
– White wines are enjoyed as aperitifs, with desserts, or between meals.

**Grape Varieties in White Wine Production:**
– Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, Müller-Thurgau, Muscat, Airén, Catarratto Bianco Comune, Chenin Blanc, Maccabeu, Sémillon.
– Characteristics, origins, and usage of various grape varieties in white wine production.

**Geological Factors and Wine Production Regions:**
– White wines excel on soils over metamorphic rocks or volcanic rocks.
– Different geological zones influence the quality and characteristics of wines produced.
France, Spain, Canada, and the Americas are significant white wine production regions.
– Importance of geological zones and regions in white wine production.

**Winemaking Process and Components of White Wine:**
– Components of the grape and the must: stalk, skin, flesh, seeds, wort.
Grape harvest methods and grape maturity for white wine production.
– Treatments before fermentation: de-stemming, shaking, trampling, maceration.
– Settling process for clarification.
Fermentation, aging, blending, and bottling processes in white wine production.

White wine (Wikipedia)

White wine is a wine that is fermented without skin contact. The colour can be straw-yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-gold. It is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-coloured pulp of grapes, which may have a skin of any colour. White wine has existed for at least 4,000 years.

White wine
Glasses of white wine
Alcohol by volume 5.5–20.5%
IngredientsGrape varieties fermented without skin contact
VariantsSee varieties

Torrontés wine tasting in Cafayate, Argentina

The wide variety of white wines comes from the large number of varieties, methods of winemaking, and ratios of residual sugar. White wine is mainly from "white" grapes, which are green or yellow in colour, such as the Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc and Riesling. Some white wine is also made from grapes with coloured skin, provided that the obtained wort is not stained. Pinot noir, for example, is commonly used to produce champagne.

Among the many types of white wine, dry white wine is the most common. More or less aromatic and tangy, it is derived from the complete fermentation of the wort. Sweet wines, on the other hand, are produced by interrupting the fermentation before all the grape sugars are converted into alcohol; this is called Mutage or fortification. The methods of enriching wort with sugar are multiple: on-ripening on the vine, passerillage (straining), or the use of noble rot. Sparkling wines, which are mostly white, are wines where the carbon dioxide from the fermentation is kept dissolved in the wine and becomes gas when the bottle is opened.

White wines are often used as an apéritif before a meal, with dessert, or as a refreshing drink between meals. White wines are often considered more refreshing and lighter in both style and taste than the majority of their red wine counterparts. Due to their acidity, aroma and ability to soften meat and deglaze cooking juices, white wines are often used in cooking.

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