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Corn syrup

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**Production and Commercial Aspects**:
– Corn syrup is produced from number 2 yellow dent corn.
– Enzymes like α-amylase and glucoamylase break down starch into glucose during production.
– It takes about 2,300 liters of corn to produce a tonne of glucose syrup.
– Different grades of syrup are rated by their dextrose equivalent (DE).
– Common commercial corn syrup products include light and dark corn syrup.
– The U.S. is a major producer of corn syrup, primarily made from corn starch.
– High fructose corn syrup is a common variant used in many products.

**Uses and History**:
– Corn syrup is used as a thickener, sweetener, and humectant in foods.
– It is a primary ingredient in commercial pancake syrups and processed foods.
Glucose syrup was the primary sweetener before the rise of high-fructose corn syrup.
– Corn syrup was sold in barrels in the 19th century and bottled by Corn Products Refining Company in 1902.
– Karo Syrup was marketed heavily in the early 20th century and as a sugar substitute during wartime.
– Corn syrup has a long history of being used in various recipes and food products.

**Health Concerns and Substitutes**:
– High consumption of corn syrup has been linked to obesity and diabetes.
– Corn syrup is a source of empty calories with low nutritional value.
– Moderation in consumption is advised due to potential health risks.
Maple syrup, honey, agave nectar, brown rice syrup, molasses, and golden syrup can be used as substitutes.
– Each substitute may impart a different flavor profile to the dish.

**Related Products and References**:
Candy corn, high-fructose corn syrup, and high-maltose corn syrup are related products.
Maple syrup, mizuame, and molasses are other types of syrups.
– References to studies and reports offer further insights into corn syrup production and usage.
– Various studies and reports provide information on the production and use of glucose syrup.
– Books on sweeteners from starch and their properties offer in-depth knowledge.

**Economic Impact**:
– Corn syrup production contributes to the agricultural economy, affecting corn prices and production.
– The demand for corn syrup supports jobs in farming and food processing.
– Changes in consumer preferences can impact the market for corn syrup.
– The corn syrup industry is influenced by global trade policies and regulations.

Corn syrup (Wikipedia)

Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch of corn/maize and contains varying amounts of sugars: glucose, maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade. Corn syrup is used in foods to soften texture, add volume, prevent crystallization of sugar, and enhance flavor. It can be processed into high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by using the enzyme D-xylose isomerase to convert a large proportion of its glucose into sweeter fructose.

Corn syrup
A railroad tank car carrying corn syrup

The more general term glucose syrup is often used synonymously with corn syrup, since glucose syrup in the United States is most commonly made from corn starch. Technically, glucose syrup is any liquid starch hydrolysate of mono-, di-, and higher-saccharides and can be made from any source of starch: wheat, tapioca and potatoes are the most common other sources.

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