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Sugar substitute

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**Types of Sugar Substitutes**:
– Artificial sweeteners derived from plant extracts or chemical synthesis.
– High-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, monk fruit extract, saccharin, sucralose, and stevia.
Sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, xylitol, and lactitol.
– Allulose, a sweetener similar to fructose.
– Acesulfame potassium, 200 times sweeter than sucrose.
– Cyclamate, banned in the U.S.
– Mogrosides (monk fruit) recognized as safe.
– Saccharin, first artificial sweetener synthesized.
– Steviol glycosides (stevia), natural non-caloric sweetener.
– Sucralose, 600 times sweeter than sugar.

**Production and Use of Sugar Substitutes**:
– Majority of sugar substitutes are artificially synthesized.
– Some plant-derived substitutes like sorbitol and xylitol exist.
– Used in sugar-free candies, cookies, and chewing gums.
– Used in diet drinks to sweeten without adding calories.
– Approved by FDA and other regulatory agencies for use in various products.
– Shelf stability allows for cost-effective food production.

**Health Effects and Concerns**:
– Dental care: Prevents tooth decay by not being fermented by oral bacteria.
Glucose metabolism: Regulates blood sugar levels in diabetes.
– Reactive hypoglycemia: Helps maintain sweetness without affecting blood glucose levels.
– Concerns about overconsumption and diabetes risk.
– Mixed results on the impact on diabetes risk and body weight.

**Research and Controversies**:
– Moderate use can help limit energy intake.
– Inconclusive evidence on the association between body weight and sweetener usage.
– Artificial sweeteners may not directly impact obesity mechanisms.
– No conclusive link between artificial sweeteners and cancer risk.
– High consumption linked to increased all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality.

**Recommendations and Guidelines**:
– WHO does not recommend using non-nutritive sweeteners for weight control.
– Small reductions in body fat with non-nutritive sweeteners.
– No significant impact on cardiometabolic risk.
– Recommendations include consuming fruit or non-sweetened foods.
– Artificial sweeteners deemed safe under common intake conditions.

Sugar substitute (Wikipedia)

A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweetness like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy than sugar-based sweeteners, making it a zero-calorie (non-nutritive) or low-calorie sweetener. Artificial sweeteners may be derived through manufacturing of plant extracts or processed by chemical synthesis. Sugar substitute products are commercially available in various forms, such as small pills, powders, and packets.

Three artificial sweeteners in paper packets, coded by color: Equal (aspartame; blue), Sweet'N Low (saccharin, pink), and Splenda (sucralose, yellow). Other colors used are orange for monk fruit extract[citation needed] and green for stevia.

Common sugar substitutes include aspartame, monk fruit extract, saccharin, sucralose, stevia, acesulfame potassium (ace-K), and cyclamate. These sweeteners are a fundamental ingredient in diet drinks to sweeten them without adding calories. Additionally, sugar alcohols such as erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol are derived from sugars.

Approved artificial sweeteners have not been shown to cause cancer. Reviews and dietetic professionals have concluded that moderate use of non-nutritive sweeteners as a safe replacement for sugars can help limit energy intake and assist with managing blood glucose and weight.

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