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Mineral water

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– Composition:
Water hardness is determined by the amount of calcium and magnesium ions dissolved.
– U.S. FDA defines mineral water as having at least 250 parts per million total dissolved solids.
– In the EU, mineral water must be bottled at the source with minimal treatment.
– Permitted treatments include removal of certain substances without altering essential constituents.
– No additions are allowed except for carbon dioxide by physical methods.

– See also:
Water portal is a related topic.
Bottled water and drinking water are often associated with mineral water.
– Lithia water and mineral spa are other types of mineral-enriched waters.
Water quality is a crucial aspect to consider.

– References:
– Mineral Waters of the World is a key resource.
– USGS provides information on hard water.
– FDA’s Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 is relevant.
– EU Directive 2009/54/EC pertains to mineral water standards.

– Source:
– Kozisek and Rosborg’s book discusses the importance of drinking water minerals.

– Bibliography:
– LaMoreaux and Tanner’s work covers springs and bottled water worldwide.

Mineral water (Wikipedia)

Mineral water is water from a mineral spring that contains various minerals, such as salts and sulfur compounds. It is usually still, but may be sparkling (carbonated/effervescent).

A mineral water spring at Sabalan Mountain, Iran

Traditionally, mineral waters were used or consumed at their spring sources, often referred to as "taking the waters" or "taking the cure," at places such as spas, baths and wells. The term spa was used for a place where the water was consumed and bathed in; bath where the water was used primarily for bathing, therapeutics, or recreation; and well where the water was consumed.

Today, it is far more common for mineral water to be bottled at the source for distributed consumption. Travelling to the mineral water site for direct access to the water is now uncommon, and in many cases not possible because of exclusive commercial ownership rights. More than 4,000 brands of mineral water are commercially available worldwide.

In many places the term "mineral water" is colloquially used to mean any bottled carbonated water or soda water, as opposed to tap water.

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