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Bottled water

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**History of Bottled Water:**
– Bottling water began in the UK in 1622 at the Holy Well.
– Spa-going and water therapy fueled demand for bottled water in the 17th and 18th centuries.
– Bristol Water from Hotwells spa was one of the first widely marketed drinking waters.
– Commercially distributed water started in America at Jacksons Spa in 1767.
– Technological advancements in the 19th century led to cheaper glass and quicker bottling.

**Water Chemistry and Development:**
– Early chemistry developments were linked to natural mineral waters.
Joseph Priestley contributed to chemistry by dissolving carbon dioxide in water.
– Priestley collaborated with Johann Jacob Schweppe to develop aerated waters.
– Natural mineral waters were studied for therapeutic properties.
Chemistry played a role in creating carbonated waters to mimic natural effervescence.

**Types and Forms of Bottled Water:**
– Common types of bottled water include alkaline, artesian, and fluoridated water.
– Other types are groundwater, mineral water, purified water, and sparkling water.
– Spring water, sterile water, and well water are also types available.
– Each type has specific characteristics based on its source and treatment process.
– Bottled water comes in various forms to cater to different consumer preferences.

**Environmental Impact of Bottled Water Production:**
Water usage in bottled water production:
– 1.32 L of water needed to produce 1 L of bottled water.
– Bottled water uses less water compared to soft drinks, beer, and wine.
– Bottled water production in the US accounts for 0.011% of annual water consumption.
– Energy usage in bottled water production:
– Bottled water production, packaging, and transportation in the US consume 31.5TWh of energy annually.
– The bottled water industry emits 6.8 million tons of CO2 equivalent annually in the US.
– Each liter of bottled water requires 240 kilojoules of energy to produce.

**Industry Response and Sustainability Efforts:**
– The bottled water industry faces scrutiny for its water and energy usage.
– Sustainable packaging and production practices are being adopted to reduce environmental impact.
– Industry stakeholders are working towards improving efficiency and sustainability in bottled water production.
– Collaborative efforts are underway to address environmental concerns and promote responsible consumption of bottled water.
– Studies highlight the energy intensity and carbon emissions associated with bottled water production.

Bottled water (Wikipedia)

Bottled water is drinking water (e.g., well water, distilled water, reverse osmosis water, mineral water, or spring water) packaged in plastic or glass water bottles. Bottled water may be carbonated or not. Sizes range from small single serving bottles to large carboys for water coolers.

Bottled mineral water being poured into a glass
Bottled water dispensed in a water cooler
A portable water container with a tap on bottom
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