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Plastic bottle

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**Production and Materials**:
– HDPE is the most widely used resin for plastic bottles due to its economical nature and good moisture barrier.
– LDPE is less rigid and chemically resistant than HDPE, primarily used for squeeze applications.
– PET is commonly used for carbonated beverages and food packaging, providing good barrier properties.
– PC is a clear plastic used for bottles like milk and water.
– PP is used for jars and closures due to its moisture barrier and stability at high temperatures.
– Bioplastics are made from renewable sources like starch and vegetable oil.
– BPA is found in polycarbonates and epoxy resins, seeping into food from containers.

**Petrochemical Resins**:
– HDPE is compatible with a wide range of products but not with solvents.
– Fluorine-treated HDPE acts as a barrier to various chemicals.
– LDPE is translucent and used for squeeze applications.
– PET provides good alcohol and essential oil barrier properties.
– PP is used for jars and closures due to its moisture barrier and stability at high temperatures.

**Environmental Concerns**:
– Ongoing concerns exist about the environmental impact of plastic disposal.
– Toxins leaching from plastics may be related to human disorders.
– Aluminum and cyanide were found as toxic elements in some plastic samples.
– FDA regulates plastic water bottles in the US, with periodic inspections of plants.
– Safety records of plastic water bottle plants have been consistently good.

**Labelling and Safety**:
– Resin identification code for PET plastic products.
– Plastic bottles marked at the base with resin identification code.
– Product labels attached with adhesive or shrunk to fit.
– In-mould labelling process during molding.
– FDA regulations for plastic water bottles in the US.

**Research and Health Implications**:
– Presence of microplastics in mineral waters from plastic bottles.
– Types of microparticles found in plastic bottles.
– Review of research by Andrew Mayes.
– Concerns raised by the FDA and European Food Safety Authority.
– Potential health risks associated with microplastics.

Plastic bottle (Wikipedia)

A plastic bottle is a bottle constructed from high-density or low density plastic. Plastic bottles are typically used to store liquids such as water, soft drinks, motor oil, cooking oil, medicine, shampoo, milk, and ink. The size ranges from very small bottles to large carboys. Consumer blow molded containers often have integral handles or are shaped to facilitate grasping.

A water bottle. Worldwide, 480 billions of plastic drinking bottles were sold in 2017 (and fewer than half were recycled).
A plastic bottle of antifreeze
Large plastic bottles of water

Plastic was invented in the 19th century and was originally used to replace common materials such as ivory, rubber, and shellac. Plastic bottles were first used commercially in 1947, but remained relatively expensive until the early 1950s when high-density polyethylene was introduced. They quickly became popular with both manufacturers and customers because compared to glass bottles, plastic bottles are lighter, cheaper and easier to transport. However, the biggest advantage plastic bottles have over their glass counterparts is their superior resistance to breakage, in both production and transportation. Except for wine and beer, the food industry has largely replaced glass bottles with plastic bottles.

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