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**History and Independence:**
– Settlement in Finland around 8,500 BC
– Introduction of pottery in 5200 BC
– Arrival of Corded Ware culture between 3000-2500 BC
– Spread of agriculture in Bronze Age
– Bronze artefacts and Finno-Ugric languages in Seima-Turbino phenomenon
– Livonian Crusade in 12th and 13th centuries
– Gradual annexation of Finland by Sweden
– Conversion to Lutheranism during Protestant Reformation
– Finnish Civil War in 1918
– Finland’s independence declaration in 1917
– Loss of territory during World War II
– Finland’s neutrality policy during Cold War
– Membership in EU, Eurozone, and NATO

**Geography and Biodiversity:**
– Nordic country in Northern Europe
– Borders with Sweden, Norway, and Russia
– Gulf of Bothnia to the west, Gulf of Finland to the south
– Area of 338,145 sq km
– Predominantly boreal forest biome with 180,000 lakes
– 168,000 lakes and 179,000 islands
– Saimaa is the fourth-largest lake in Europe
– Glacial retreat has left morainic deposits forming eskers
– Reindeer graze in Lapland, wolverine populations have grown
– Diverse fauna with native mammalian, bird, fish, and reptile species

**Economy and Development:**
– Agricultural country until 1950s
– Rapid industrialization post-World War II
– Advanced economy with Nordic welfare model
– High per capita income and prosperity
– Membership in various international organizations and strong national performance metrics
– Largest producer of wood in Europe
– Granite is the most common type of rock in Finland
– Job opportunities in manufacturing, services, and trade attracted people to urban areas
– Trade with Western powers and paying reparations to the Soviet Union transformed Finland from agrarian to industrial
– Economic growth driven by Nokia’s success in the late 1990s

**Government and Politics:**
– Member of the Eurozone and the European Union
– Alexander Stubb is the 13th President since 1 March 2024
– Petteri Orpo is the 47th Prime Minister since 20 June 2023
– The Parliament of Finland has 200 members
– The Constitution of Finland establishes a parliamentary republic
– The President appoints the Prime Minister and other ministers
– Parliament uses the proportional DHondt method for elections
– The President can veto legislation and grant pardons

**Climate and Regions:**
– Finland lies between latitudes 60° and 70° N
– Maritime and continental climate variation
– Long, cold winters and short, warm summers
– Finland consists of 19 regions governed by regional councils
– Public health services in Finland are usually organized based on counties
– Finland’s territories are divided into regions for governance and cooperation
– Glacial retreat has left morainic deposits forming eskers
– The terrain in Finland is rising due to post-glacial rebound

Finland (Wikipedia)

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the south, opposite Estonia. Finland covers an area of 338,145 square kilometres (130,559 sq mi) and has a population of 5.6 million. Helsinki is the capital and largest city. The vast majority of the population are ethnic Finns. Finnish and Swedish are the official languages, with Swedish being the native language of 5.2% of the population. Finland's climate varies from humid continental in the south to boreal in the north. The land cover is predominantly boreal forest biome, with more than 180,000 recorded lakes.

Republic of Finland
Maamme (Finnish)
Vårt land (Swedish)
(English: "Our Land")
Location of Finland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
60°10′15″N 24°56′15″E / 60.17083°N 24.93750°E / 60.17083; 24.93750
Official languages
Recognized national languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Alexander Stubb
Petteri Orpo
Jussi Halla-aho
from RSFSR
29 March 1809
6 December 1917
January – May 1918
17 July 1919
30 November 1939 – 13 March 1940
25 June 1941 – 19 September 1944
• Joined the EU
1 January 1995
• Joined NATO
4 April 2023
• Total
338,145 km2 (130,559 sq mi) (65th)
• Water (%)
9.71 (2015)
• 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 5,604,558 (114th)
• Density
16.4/km2 (42.5/sq mi) (213th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $335.760 billion (59th)
• Per capita
Increase $59,869 (24th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $305.689 billion (48th)
• Per capita
Increase $54,507 (16th)
Gini (2023)Steady 26.6
HDI (2022)Increase 0.942
very high (12th)
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+358
ISO 3166 codeFI
Internet, .axa, .eub
  1. The .ax domain is used in Åland.
  2. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Finland was first settled around 9000 BC after the last Ice Age. During the Stone Age, various cultures emerged, distinguished by different styles of ceramics. The Bronze Age and Iron Ages were marked by contacts with other cultures in Fennoscandia and the Baltic region. From the late 13th century, Finland became part of the Swedish Empire as a result of the Northern Crusades. In 1809, as a result of the Finnish War, Finland was captured from Sweden and became a Grand Duchy of Finland, an autonomous state ruled by the Russian Empire. During this period, Finnish art flourished and the idea of full independence began to take hold. In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant universal suffrage, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Finland declared its full independence. In 1918 the young nation was divided by the Finnish Civil War. During World War II, Finland fought against the Soviet Union in the Winter War and the Continuation War, and later against Nazi Germany in the Lapland War. As a result, it lost parts of its territory but retained its independence.

Finland remained a largely agricultural country until the 1950s. After World War II, it industrialised quickly and established an advanced economy, with a welfare state built on the Nordic model. This allowed the country to experience overall prosperity and high per capita income. During the Cold War, Finland officially embraced a policy of neutrality. Since then, it has become a member of the European Union in 1995, the Eurozone in 1999, and NATO in 2023. Finland is a member of various international organisations, such as the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Schengen Area, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The nation performs exceedingly well in national performance metrics, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development.

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