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**1. Historical Development of Sweden:**

– Sweden’s prehistory began around 12,000 BC during the Allerød oscillation.
– The Viking Age in Sweden lasted from the 8th to the 11th century.
– Establishment of the Kingdom of Sweden with monarchs like Eric the Victorious in the 10th century.
– Swedish colonization of coastal areas of Finland began in the 12th century.
– Rise of Modern Sweden under Gustav I, leading to the liberation from Denmark and embracing the Protestant Reformation.

**2. Economic and Social Evolution:**

– Feudalism never developed in Sweden.
– Slavery and serfdom were abolished by King Magnus IV in 1335.
– Sweden remained economically backward until the 16th century.
– Industrialized economy development in Sweden started between 1870 and 1914.
– Agrarian economy changes, including innovations, population growth, and industrialization.

**3. Political Governance and Transition:**

– Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy.
– Executive power shifted from shared rule to autocratic rule by the King until 1680.
– Different flavors of constitutional monarchy in 1772, 1789, and 1809.
– Transition to a parliamentary system in 1719 after the failed Great Northern War.
– The Era of Liberty (1719–1772) laid the basis for modern democracy in Sweden.

**4. Sweden’s Role in International Affairs:**

– Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
– Participation in international military operations and peacekeeping efforts increased.
– Founding member of the European Free Trade Area (EFTA).
– Sweden joined NATO in 2024 in response to global events.
– Support for Finland and Norwegian resistance against Germany during World War II.

**5. Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Challenges:**

– Sweden has a rich cultural history dating back to prehistoric times.
– Swedish cuisine, traditional holidays like Midsummer and Lucia.
– Immigration and social challenges due to significant immigrant population.
– Criticism and political responses to immigration issues in Sweden.
– Sweden’s economic competitiveness, quality of life, and contributions to literature, music, and design.

Sweden (Wikipedia)

Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Nordic country located on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north, Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge–tunnel across the Öresund.

Kingdom of Sweden
Konungariket Sverige (Swedish)
"Du gamla, du fria"
(English: "Thou ancient, Thou free")
Royal anthem: 
(English: "Song of the King")
Location of Sweden (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
59°21′N 18°4′E / 59.350°N 18.067°E / 59.350; 18.067
Official languagesSwedish
National minority languages
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Carl XVI Gustaf
Andreas Norlén
Ulf Kristersson
• A unified Swedish kingdom established
By the late 10th century
• Part of the Kalmar Union
17 June 1397 – 6 June 1523
1611 – 1721
1 January 1995
• Joined NATO
7 March 2024
• Total
450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi) (55th)
• Water (%)
8.97 (2022)
• 31 May 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 10,540,886 (87th)
• Density
25/km2 (64.7/sq mi) (198th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $715.995 billion (40th)
• Per capita
Increase $66,209 (17th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $597.110 billion (25th)
• Per capita
Decrease $55,215 (12th)
Gini (2022)Negative increase 27.6
HDI (2022)Increase 0.952
very high (5th)
CurrencySwedish krona (SEK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
ISO 3166 codeSE

At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest Nordic country and the fifth-largest country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Stockholm. Sweden has a population of 10.5 million, and a low population density of 25.5 inhabitants per square kilometre (66/sq mi), with around 87% of Swedes residing in urban areas, which cover 1.5% of the entire land area, in the central and southern half of the country. Nature in Sweden is dominated by forests and many lakes, including some of the largest in Europe. Many long rivers run from the Scandes range, primarily emptying into the northern tributaries of the Baltic Sea. It has an extensive coastline and most of the population lives near a major body of water. With the country ranging from 55°N to 69°N, the climate of Sweden is diverse due to the length of the country.

Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats (Swedish: Götar) and Swedes (Svear) and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. A unified Swedish state emerged during the late 10th century. In 1397, Sweden joined Norway and Denmark to form the Scandinavian Kalmar Union, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years' War on the Protestant side, an expansion of its territories began, forming the Swedish Empire, which remained one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. During this era Sweden controlled much of the Baltic Sea.

Sweden is a highly developed country ranked seventh in the Human Development Index. It is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy, with legislative power vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. It is a unitary state, divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. It has the world's 14th highest GDP per capita and ranks very highly in quality of life, health, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, income equality, gender equality and prosperity. Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995. It is also a member of the United Nations, NATO, the Nordic Council, the Schengen Area, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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