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North Carolina

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**Historical Overview:**
– North Carolina inhabited for at least 10,000 years by prehistoric Indigenous cultures.
– Mississippian culture established by 1000 AD in Piedmont and mountain region.
– Records of encounters with Mississippian culture people by Spanish explorers in the 16th century.
– Statehood as one of the Thirteen Colonies and key historical events like the Halifax Resolves and ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
– Orville and Wilbur Wright’s first flight in 1903 at Kitty Hawk.

**Geography and Climate:**
– Wide range of elevations from the Appalachian Mountains to the coastal plain.
– Mount Mitchell, the highest point east of the Mississippi River.
– Varied climate zones, including humid subtropical and subtropical highland climates.

**Population and Urban Centers:**
– Raleigh as the state capital and Charlotte as the most populous city.
– Significance of the Research Triangle area and Research Triangle Park.
– Demographics and growth trends in metropolitan areas.

**Colonial and Antebellum Periods:**
– Anglo-European settlement, including the Lost Colony of Roanoke Island.
– Development of the colony, separation into North and South Carolina, and economic reliance on crops like tobacco and cotton.
– Impact of slavery, plantation systems, and social structures during the antebellum period.

**Political and Social Evolution:**
– Political history from colonial times to the Civil War and Reconstruction era.
– African-American rights, political landscape, and struggles for equal representation.
– Voting rights, segregation, and the impact of key legislation like the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
– Economic shifts from agriculture to industries like technology, banking, and tourism in the late 20th century to the present.

North Carolina (Wikipedia)

North Carolina (/ˌkærəˈlnə/ KARR-ə-LIE-nə) is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, South Carolina to the south, Georgia to the southwest, and Tennessee to the west. The state is the 28th-largest and 9th-most populous of the United States. Along with South Carolina, it makes up the Carolinas region of the East Coast. At the 2020 census, the state had a population of 10,439,388. Raleigh is the state's capital and Charlotte is its most populous city. The Charlotte metropolitan area, with an estimated population of 2,805,115 in 2023, is the most populous metropolitan area in North Carolina, the 22nd-most populous in the United States, and the largest banking center in the nation after New York City. The Research Triangle, with an estimated population of 2,368,947 in 2023, is the second-most populous combined metropolitan area in the state, 31st-most populous in the United States, and is home to the largest research park in the United States, Research Triangle Park.

North Carolina
The Tarheel State, The Old North State
Esse quam videri "To be, rather than to seem"
Anthem: "The Old North State"
Map of the United States with North Carolina highlighted
Map of the United States with North Carolina highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodProvince of North Carolina
Admitted to the UnionNovember 21, 1789 (12th)
Largest cityCharlotte
Largest county or equivalentWake
Largest metro and urban areasCharlotte
 • GovernorRoy Cooper (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorMark Robinson (R)
LegislatureGeneral Assembly
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryNorth Carolina Supreme Court
U.S. senatorsThom Tillis (R)
Ted Budd (R)
U.S. House delegation
  • 7 Republicans
  • 7 Democrats
 • Total53,819.16 sq mi (139,391.0 km2)
 • Land48,617.91 sq mi (125,919.8 km2)
 • Water5,201.25 sq mi (13,471.2 km2)  9.66%
 • Rank28th
 • Length500 mi (804 km)
 • Width184 mi (296 km)
700 ft (210 m)
Highest elevation6,684 ft (2,037 m)
Lowest elevation
(Atlantic Ocean)
0 ft (0 m)
 • Total10,439,388
 • Rank9th
 • Density214.72/sq mi (82.90/km2)
  • Rank14th
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
Demonym(s)North Carolinian (official);
Tarheel (colloquial)
 • Official languageEnglish
 • Spoken languageAs of 2010
  • English 90.70%
  • Spanish 6.93%
  • Other 2.73%
Time zoneUTC– 05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC– 04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-NC
Traditional abbreviationN.C.
Latitude33° 50′ N to 36° 35′ N
Longitude75° 28′ W to 84° 19′ W
State symbols of North Carolina
List of state symbols
MottoEsse quam videri
("To be, rather than to seem")
SloganFirst in Flight, First in Freedom (unofficial)
Song"The Old North State"
Living insignia
AmphibianPine Barrens tree frog
ButterflyEastern tiger swallowtail
Dog breedPlott Hound
FishRed drum
FlowerFlowering dogwood
InsectWestern honey bee
MammalEastern gray squirrel
MarsupialVirginia opossum
ReptileEastern box turtle
Inanimate insignia
Color(s)Red and blue
DanceCarolina shag
FoodScuppernong grape and sweet potato
FossilMegalodon teeth
ShellScotch bonnet
OtherMarbled salamander (salamander)
State route marker
Route marker
State quarter
North Carolina quarter dollar coin
Released in 2001
Lists of United States state symbols

The earliest evidence of human occupation in North Carolina dates back 10,000 years, found at the Hardaway Site. North Carolina was inhabited by Carolina Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Siouan speaking tribes of Native Americans prior to the arrival of Europeans. King Charles II granted eight lord proprietors a colony they named Carolina after the king and which was established in 1670 with the first permanent settlement at Charles Town (Charleston). Because of the difficulty of governing the entire colony from Charles Town, the colony was eventually divided and North Carolina was established as a royal colony in 1729 and was one of the Thirteen Colonies. The Halifax Resolves resolution adopted by North Carolina on April 12, 1776, was the first formal call for independence from Great Britain among the American Colonies during the American Revolution.

On November 21, 1789, North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the United States Constitution. In the run-up to the American Civil War, North Carolina declared its secession from the Union on May 20, 1861, becoming the tenth of eleven states to join the Confederate States of America. Following the Civil War, the state was restored to the Union on July 4, 1868. On December 17, 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright successfully piloted the world's first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft at Kitty Hawk in North Carolina's Outer Banks. North Carolina often uses the slogan "First in Flight" on state license plates to commemorate this achievement, alongside a newer alternative design bearing the slogan "First in Freedom" in reference to the Mecklenburg Declaration and Halifax Resolves.

North Carolina is defined by a wide range of elevations and landscapes. From west to east, North Carolina's elevation descends from the Appalachian Mountains to the Piedmont and Atlantic coastal plain. North Carolina's Mount Mitchell at 6,684 ft (2,037 m) is the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone; however, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate.

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