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**1. Sucrose Overview:**
– Etymology: Coined in 1857 by William Miller from French sucre and suffix -ose
– Abbreviation: Suc in scientific literature; saccharose is an obsolete name
– Physical and Chemical Properties: Composed of glucose and fructose with an ether bond; crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2; purity measured by polarimetry
– Thermal and Oxidative Degradation: Decomposes at 186°C to form caramel; combusts to carbon dioxide and water; various reactions with different substances
– Synthesis and Biosynthesis: Formed by plants, algae, cyanobacteria via precursors; end product of photosynthesis; also synthesized in 1953

**2. Production and Consumption:**
– Historical Background: Table sugar’s ancient origins in India and China; mechanization in the late 18th century
– Global Production: 185 million tonnes in 2017; 80% from sugarcane, rest from sugar beets
– Major Producers: India, Brazil, EU, Thailand, China; beet sugar in cooler climates
– Industrialization Impact: Increased sucrose consumption in processed foods
High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Cheaper alternative affecting sucrose consumption trends

**3. Sugar Types and Processing:**
– Types: Main component of table sugar; other sources like date palm, sorghum, sugar maple
– Production Process: Extraction from crops with hot water; centrifugation for crystallization
– Brazilian Agriculture: Leading sugarcane producer; significant contribution to economy
– Cane vs. Beet Sugar: Differences in production, water usage, residues, and labeling
– Culinary Sugars: Different refining methods and crystal sizes for various culinary needs

**4. Nutritional Aspects and Health Concerns:**
– Nutritional Information: Composition, calorie content, micronutrients in fully refined sugar
Metabolism: Breakdown in humans, contribution to metabolic issues and tooth decay
– UN Dietary Recommendation: Guidelines for free sugar intake and its impact on health
– Religious Concerns: Use of bone char in sugar refining and kosher considerations
– Measurement: Techniques like Brix degrees and refractometry for sugar concentration

**5. Market Dynamics and International Trade:**
– International Sugar Market Prices: World market trends, G20 countries’ stance, trade agreements
– WTO Rulings: Impact on EU and US sugar regimes, reforms, influence of lobbyists
– Premiums and Trade Schemes: Fairtrade initiatives, government programs, EU policy changes
– References on Sucrose: Various sources providing information on sucrose
– Historical Context and Labor Practices: Significance of sugar in history, labor practices, and related studies.

Sucrose (Wikipedia)

Sucrose, a disaccharide, is a sugar composed of glucose and fructose subunits. It is produced naturally in plants and is the main constituent of white sugar. It has the molecular formula C

Haworth projection of sucrose
Ball-and-stick model of sucrose
IUPAC name
β-D-Fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside
Systematic IUPAC name
Other names
  • Sugar;
  • Saccharose;
  • α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside;
  • β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside;
  • β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside;
  • α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranosyl-β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranoside;
  • Dodecacarbon monodecahydrate;
  • ((2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxapent-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxahexane-3,4,5-triol)
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.304 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 200-334-9
RTECS number
  • WN6500000
  • InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-4-6(16)8(18)9(19)11(21-4)23-12(3-15)10(20)7(17)5(2-14)22-12/h4-11,13-20H,1-3H2/t4-,5-,6-,7-,8+,9-,10+,11-,12+/m1/s1 checkY
  • InChI=1/C12H22O11/c13-1-4-6(16)8(18)9(264115619)11(21-4)23-12(3-15)10(20)7(17)5(2-14)22-12/h4-11,13-20H,1-3H2/t4-,5-,6-,7-,8+,9-,10+,11-,12+/m1/s1
  • O1[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[C@@]2(O[C@@H]([C@@H](O)[C@@H]2O)CO)CO
Molar mass 342.30 g/mol
Appearance white solid
Density 1.587 g/cm3 (0.0573 lb/cu in), solid
Melting point None; decomposes at 186 °C (367 °F; 459 K)
~200 g/dL (25 °C (77 °F))
log P −3.76
−2,226.1 kJ/mol (−532.1 kcal/mol)
1,349.6 kcal/mol (5,647 kJ/mol) (Higher heating value)
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g. sodium chlorideFlammability 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g. canola oilInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
29700 mg/kg (oral, rat)
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 15 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)
REL (Recommended)
TWA 10 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Safety data sheet (SDS) ICSC 1507
Related compounds
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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For human consumption, sucrose is extracted and refined from either sugarcane or sugar beet. Sugar mills – typically located in tropical regions near where sugarcane is grown – crush the cane and produce raw sugar which is shipped to other factories for refining into pure sucrose. Sugar beet factories are located in temperate climates where the beet is grown, and process the beets directly into refined sugar. The sugar-refining process involves washing the raw sugar crystals before dissolving them into a sugar syrup which is filtered and then passed over carbon to remove any residual colour. The sugar syrup is then concentrated by boiling under a vacuum and crystallized as the final purification process to produce crystals of pure sucrose that are clear, odorless, and sweet.

Sugar is often an added ingredient in food production and recipes. About 185 million tonnes of sugar were produced worldwide in 2017.

Sucrose is particularly dangerous as a risk factor for tooth decay because Streptococcus mutans bacteria convert it into a sticky, extracellular, dextran-based polysaccharide that allows them to cohere, forming plaque. Sucrose is the only sugar that bacteria can use to form this sticky polysaccharide.

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