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**Historical Development**:
– Etymology: The name Colombia originated from the Italian navigator Christopher Columbus, encompassing the New World.
– Pre-Columbian era: Indigenous people inhabited Colombia by 12,500 BCE, transitioning from hunter-gatherer tribes to agrarian societies.
– Colonial era: Spanish colonization began in the mid-16th century, leading to independence in 1819 as the United Provinces of New Granada.
– Modern era: Colombia faced armed conflicts since the 1960s, but has improved security and healthcare, becoming the third-largest economy in South America.
– Independence Movement: Rebel movements led to the Colombian Declaration of Independence in 1810, with key figures like Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander.

**Geography and Biodiversity**:
– Geography: Colombia covers 1,141,748 square kilometers and boasts diverse terrains like rainforests, highlands, and coastlines on both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
– Biodiversity and Conservation: Colombia is one of the world’s most biodiverse countries, home to over 10% of global species, including the highest number of bird species. It has significant endemisms and plant species diversity.

**Political and Social Transformations**:
– Colonial Period: Spanish explorers like Vasco Núñez de Balboa and Rodrigo de Bastidas colonized Colombia in the 16th century.
– Political Evolution: Colombia adopted its constitution in 1821, founded liberal and conservative parties, and abolished slavery in 1851.
– 20th Century Transformations: Colombia faced challenges like Panama’s separation in 1903, conflicts with Peru, and internal strife like La Violencia.
– National Front and Guerrilla Conflict: The National Front coalition aimed to govern Colombia, ending La Violencia but leading to the rise of guerrilla groups in the 1960s.
– 21st Century Peace Process: Peace negotiations with groups like FARC led to peace accords signed by Juan Manuel Santos and a revised deal in 2016.

**International Relations and Political Landscape**:
– International Relations: Colombia is part of major global organizations like the UN and the WTO, with strong ties to the US as a major non-NATO ally. It has a diversified economy and is a member of the Pacific Alliance.
– Human Rights and Political Landscape: Colombia has established mechanisms like the Special Jurisdiction of Peace for human rights violations. Political transitions have seen leaders from both left-wing and right-wing backgrounds.

**Climate and Humanitarian Efforts**:
– Climate: Colombia features diverse climate zones influenced by altitude, with areas ranging from tropical rainforests to glacial zones.
– Humanitarian Efforts: Colombia has supported humanitarian efforts in Venezuela, proposed Sustainable Development Goals, and faced tensions with Venezuela over diplomatic actions and political differences.

Colombia (Wikipedia)

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country mostly in South America with insular regions in North America. The Colombian mainland is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east and northeast, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador and Peru to the south and southwest, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and Panama to the northwest. Colombia is divided into 32 departments. The Capital District of Bogotá is also the country's largest city hosting the main financial and cultural hub. Other major urbes include Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta, Cúcuta, Ibagué, Villavicencio and Bucaramanga. It covers an area of 1,141,748 square kilometers (440,831 sq mi) and has a population of around 52 million. Its rich cultural heritage—including language, religion, cuisine, and art—reflects its history as a colony, fusing cultural elements brought by immigration from Europe and the Middle East, with those brought by the African diaspora, as well as with those of the various Indigenous civilizations that predate colonization. Spanish is the official language, although Creole English and 64 other languages are recognized regionally.

Republic of Colombia
República de Colombia (Spanish)
Motto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish)
"Freedom and Order"
Anthem: Himno Nacional de la República de Colombia (Spanish)
"National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia"
Location of Colombia (dark green)
Location of Colombia (dark green)
and largest city
4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583°N 74.067°W / 4.583; -74.067
Official languagesSpanish
Recognized regional languagesCreole English (in San Andrés and Providencia)
64 other languages
Ethnic groups
(2018 census)
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Gustavo Petro
Francia Márquez
Chamber of Representatives
Independence from Spain
• Declared
20 July 1810
• Recognized
7 August 1819
• Last unitisation
5 August 1886
• Secession of Panama
6 November 1903
4 July 1991
• Total
1,141,748 km2 (440,831 sq mi) (25th)
• Water (%)
2.1 (as of 2015)
• 2024 estimate
Neutral increase 52,695,952 (27th)
• Density
46.15/km2 (119.5/sq mi) (174th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.02 trillion (32nd)
• Per capita
Increase $19,482 (82nd)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $363.835 billion (46th)
• Per capita
Increase $6,975 (97th)
Gini (2020)Negative increase 54.2
HDI (2022)Increase 0.758
high (91st)
CurrencyColombian peso (COP)
Time zoneUTC−5 (COT)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+57
ISO 3166 codeCO
  1. ^ Although the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish (Castellano) as the official language in all Colombian territory, other languages spoken in the country by ethnic groups – approximately 68 languages – each is also official in its territory. English is also official in the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.
  2. ^ The official Colombian time is controlled and coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology.

Colombia has been home to many indigenous peoples and cultures since at least 12,000 BCE. The Spanish first landed in La Guajira in 1499, and by the mid-16th century, they had colonized much of present-day Colombia, and established the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santa Fé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from the Spanish Empire was achieved in 1819, with what is now Colombia emerging as the United Provinces of New Granada. The new polity experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858) and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before becoming a republic—the current Republic of Colombia—in 1886. With the backing of the United States and France, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, resulting in Colombia's present borders. Beginning in the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security, stability, and rule of law, as well as unprecedented economic growth and development. Colombia is recognized for its healthcare system, being the best healthcare in Latin America according to the World Health Organization and 22nd in the world. Its diversified economy is the third-largest in South America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects.

Colombia is one of the world's seventeen megadiverse countries; it has the highest level of biodiversity per square mile in the world and the second-highest level overall. Its territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, highlands, grasslands and deserts. It is the only country in South America with coastlines (and islands) along both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Colombia is a key member of major global and regional organizations including the UN, the WTO, the OECD, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance and the Andean Community; it is also a NATO Global Partner and a major non-NATO ally of the United States.

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