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**1. Early History and Ancient Civilizations:**
– Human presence in Peru dates back to 12,500 BCE.
– Andean societies focused on agriculture, camelid husbandry, and fishing.
– Various civilizations like Caral/Norte Chico, Chavín, Moche, and Inca thrived and declined.
– Incas emerged as a powerful state in the 15th century, controlling most of the Andean region.
– Machu Picchu symbolizes pre-Columbian Peru, with the Inca Empire having a significant population.

**2. Spanish Conquest, Colonial Period, and Impact:**
– Atahualpa, the last Sapa Inca, was executed in 1533, leading to Spanish colonization.
– Peru became a major provider of mineral resources for Spain.
– Economic activities like gold and silver mining were prominent.
– The Bourbon Reforms and Túpac Amaru II’s rebellion impacted colonial Peru.
– Treaty of Tordesillas became meaningless, leading to independence movements.

**3. Independence and 19th/20th Century History:**
– Peru’s independence was consolidated after the Battle of Ayacucho in 1824.
– Periods of stability, economic crises, and wars characterized the 19th and 20th centuries.
– Notable events include the War of the Pacific, emergence of political forces like APRA, and military coups.
– Agrarian reforms and economic turbulence marked the mid-20th century.
– Fujimori’s controversial governance, human rights violations, and exile occurred in the late 20th century.

**4. Political Developments and Governance:**
– Peru is a unitary semi-presidential republic with a multi-party system.
– The 1993 Constitution shifted power towards the president.
– Government structure includes elements from the U.S. and China systems.
– Leadership includes the president, Congress, and judiciary.
– Recent political events involve impeachments, resignations, and removals of presidents.

**5. Economic and Social Challenges:**
– Peru’s economy relies on mining, manufacturing, agriculture, and fishing.
– The country faced political instability and economic challenges in the 20th century.
– Recent challenges include the COVID-19 pandemic, economic crisis, and political turmoil.
– Social unrest and protests have occurred due to political decisions.
– Peru’s cultural diversity has enriched fields like art, cuisine, literature, and music.

Peru (Wikipedia)

Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon River. Peru has a population of over 32 million, and its capital and largest city is Lima. At 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi), Peru is the 19th largest country in the world, and the third largest in South America.

Republic of Peru
República del Perú (Spanish)
Co-official names
"Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish)
"Firm and Happy for the Union"
"Himno Nacional del Perú" (Spanish)
"National Anthem of Peru"
"Marcha de Banderas" (Spanish)
"March of Flags"
National seal
Gran Sello del Estado (Spanish)
Great Seal of the State
Location of Peru (dark green)
Location of Peru (dark green)
and largest city
12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12.0433°S 77.0283°W / -12.0433; -77.0283
Official languagesSpanish
Co-official languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Dina Boluarte
Gustavo Adrianzén
Alejandro Soto Reyes
LegislatureCongress of the Republic
from Spain
• Declared
28 July 1821
9 December 1824
• Recognized
14 August 1879
• Total
1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi) (19th)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
34,352,720 (45th)
• Density
23/km2 (59.6/sq mi) (197th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $548.465 billion (45th)
• Per capita
Increase $15,893 (96th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $264.636 billion (51st)
• Per capita
Increase $7,668 (88th)
Gini (2021)Positive decrease 40.2
HDI (2022)Increase 0.762
high (87th)
CurrencyPeruvian sol (PEN)
Time zoneUTC−5 (PET)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+51
ISO 3166 codePE

Peruvian territory was home to several cultures during the ancient and medieval periods, and has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 10th millennium BCE. Notable pre-colonial cultures and civilizations include the Caral–Supe civilization (the earliest civilization in the Americas and considered one of the cradles of civilization), the Nazca culture, the Wari and Tiwanaku empires, the Kingdom of Cusco, and the Inca Empire, the largest known state in the pre-Columbian Americas. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and Charles V established a viceroyalty with the official name of the Kingdom of Peru that encompassed most of its South American territories, with its capital in Lima. Higher education started in the Americas with the official establishment of the National University of San Marcos in Lima in 1551.

Peru formally proclaimed independence from Spain in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru completed its independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country first suffered from political instability until a period of relative economic and political stability began due to the exploitation of guano that ended with the War of the Pacific (1879–1884). Throughout the 20th century, Peru grappled with political and social instability, including the internal conflict between the state and guerrilla groups, interspersed with periods of economic growth. Implementation of Plan Verde shifted Peru towards neoliberal economics under the authoritarian rule of Alberto Fujimori and Vladimiro Montesinos in the 1990s, with the former's political ideology of Fujimorism leaving a lasting imprint on the country's governance that continues to present day. The 2000s marked economic expansion and poverty reduction, but the subsequent decade revealed long-existing sociopolitical vulnerabilities, exacerbated by a political crisis instigated by Congress and the COVID-19 pandemic, precipitating the period of unrest beginning in 2022.

The sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing, along with other growing sectors such as telecommunications and biotechnology. The country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power.

Peru's population includes Mestizos, Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechuan languages, Aymara, or other Indigenous languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

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