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**History of Bartending:**
– Bartending historically had negative connotations due to ethical issues and legal constraints.
– Jerry Thomas, the father of American Mixology, published the first cocktail guide in 1862.
– Mixology evolved in the late 1800s with pioneers like Harry Johnson introducing unique cocktail recipes.
– Women bartenders, known as barmaids, were common in London in the early 20th century.
– Bartending persisted during US prohibition with underground speakeasies serving cocktails.

**Art of Mixology:**
– Mixology focuses on creating cocktails with specific flavor profiles.
– Cocktails consist of spirits, acids, bases, and garnishes.
– Common spirits used in cocktails include gin, whiskey, and rum.
– Acids like lemon juice add complexity and brightness to drinks.
– Bases like simple syrup and liqueurs balance spirits and acids in a cocktail.

**Bartending by Country:**
– **United Kingdom:**
– Bar work is often seen as temporary employment for students.
– High turnover rates in UK bars are due to low wages and poor benefits.
– Skilled bartenders are in short supply due to limited employee benefits.
– **United States:**
– 55% of a bartender’s pay comes from tips.
– Craft bartenders focus on high-quality ingredients and upscale venues.
– Bartenders work in various bars like hotel bars, sports bars, and dive bars.
– **Japan:**
– Japanese bartending reflects 1930s international style.
– Bartenders need supervision by food hygiene supervisors.
– Nippon Bartenders Association offers exams on liquor and cocktails.
– **China:**
– Bartenders need certification from the National Labor Department.
– Salary structure includes basic salary, service charge, and drink commission.
– Junior, intermediate, and senior bartenders have specific cocktail mastery requirements.
– **Canada:**
– Bartenders work in various establishments across the country.
– Certification requirements vary by province, with some requiring bartender certification.

**Mixologist Role:**
– Mixologists study the history and science of cocktails.
– They have deeper knowledge of ingredients and flavors.
– Mixologists can create unique cocktails with various ingredients and reimagine classics.
– Understanding the chemistry of drinks allows mixologists to elevate basic cocktails.

**Notable Mixologists and Additional Information:**
– Notable mixologists include Ada Coley Coleman, Harry Craddock, Dale Degroff, Dick Bradsell, Erika Moore, and Raquel Ravenell.
– Additional topics include bar-back and flair bartending, hospitality, and a list of bartenders.
– References cover information and training, mixology definitions, bartending salaries, and occupational outlook.

Bartender (Wikipedia)

A bartender (also known as a barkeep or barmaid or a mixologist) is a person who formulates and serves alcoholic or soft drink beverages behind the bar, usually in a licensed establishment as well as in restaurants and nightclubs, but also occasionally at private parties. Bartenders also usually maintain the supplies and inventory for the bar. As well as serving beer and wine, a bartender can generally also mix classic cocktails such as a Cosmopolitan, Manhattan, Old Fashioned, and Mojito.

Bartender, Skyline Hotel Malmö, 1992

Bartenders are also responsible for confirming that customers meet the legal drinking age requirements before serving them alcoholic beverages. In certain countries, such as the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Sweden, bartenders are legally required to refuse more alcohol to drunk customers.

Mixology is defined as the art or skill of preparing mixed drinks. At its core, the purpose of this practice is to craft cocktails. However, the science and skills required to successfully practice mixology are more intricate than what is seen at face value. The key to mixing drinks is knowing the ideal quantity of each ingredient needed to create the flavor profile required. Mixology aims to both elevate and balance the various flavors found in a cocktail. Mixology is essentially edible chemistry in the form of cocktails.

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