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**Historical Evolution of Pasteurization:**
– Louis Pasteur’s experiment supported the germ theory of disease.
– Early instances of heating for preservation in China and Europe.
– Development of canning by Appert and Durand.
– Mandatory milk pasteurization in New York City in 1910.
– Establishment of standards for milk pasteurization in the early 20th century.

**Benefits and Importance of Pasteurization:**
– Elimination of pathogens and extension of food shelf life.
– Prevention of diseases like tuberculosis, brucellosis, and more.
– Significant reduction in foodborne illnesses from raw milk consumption.
– Revolutionizing food preservation and safety standards.
– Ensuring milk safety and saving lives through pasteurization.

**Pasteurization Methods and Global Impact:**
– Various pasteurization methods like mild heat treatment, HPP, and PEF.
– Adoption in dairy and food processing industries worldwide.
– Minor effects on nutritional quality and sensory characteristics.
– Development of novel pasteurization methods for enhanced food safety.
– Wide utilization in preserving liquid products and ensuring food safety.

**Pasteurization Process and Equipment:**
– Mild heat treatment below 100°C for liquid foods.
– Different pasteurization techniques like HTST and UHT.
– Use of plate heat exchangers, shell and tube heat exchangers, and more.
– Verification methods involving temperature and enzyme activity.
– Disinfection of medical equipment using hot water and temperature control in pasteurization.

**Efficacy and Effects of Pasteurization:**
– Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in milk through specific time and temperature combinations.
– Impact on nutritional values like vitamins B12, E, and A in milk.
– Minor changes in sensory attributes of processed foods post-pasteurization.
– Use of non-thermal methods like high-pressure processing and pulsed electric field.
– Regulations, quality effects, and advancements in soy protein processing related to pasteurization.

Pasteurization (Wikipedia)

In the field of food processing, pasteurization (also pasteurisation) is a process of food preservation in which packaged and unpacked foods (e.g., milk and fruit juices) are treated with mild heat, usually to less than 100 °C (212 °F), to eliminate pathogens and extend shelf life. Pasteurization either destroys or deactivates microorganisms and enzymes that contribute to food spoilage or the risk of disease, including vegetative bacteria, but most bacterial spores survive the process.

Pasteurized milk in Japan
A Chicago Department of Health poster explains household pasteurization to mothers.

The process of pasteurization is named after the French microbiologist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1860s demonstrated that thermal processing would deactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety.

By the year 1999, most liquid products were heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using a heat exchanger or the direct or indirect use of hot water and steam. Due to the mild heat, there are minor changes to the nutritional quality and sensory characteristics of the treated foods. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.

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