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**Historical Background**:
– Israel’s etymology and historical names like Land of Israel.
– Early hominin expansions in the Levant and the emergence of the Israelites from Canaanite peoples.
– Development of a monotheistic religion centered on Yahweh by the Israelites.
– Mention of Israel on the Merneptah Stele and the establishment of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah.

**Geography and Politics**:
– Israel’s location in the Southern Levant and its borders with neighboring countries.
– Key cities like Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, with the latter being the proclaimed capital.
– Israel’s economic strength as one of the largest in the Middle East and its technological advancements.
– Political system with a parliamentary setup and the challenges in resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

**Classical Antiquity to Modern Period**:
– Overview of key events from ancient times to the emergence of Zionism.
– Ottoman rule, British Mandate, and the aspirations of Jews to return to Zion.
– Establishment of modern Israel, conflicts post-independence, and peace treaties with neighboring countries.

**British Mandate and State Establishment**:
– Events during the British Mandate, including the Balfour Declaration and Arab opposition.
– Aliyahs, Arab revolt, and the UN Partition Plan leading to the establishment of Israel.
– Challenges post-independence, military attacks, and displacement of Palestinians.

**Wars and Conflicts**:
– The 1948 Arab-Israeli War and its aftermath, including armistice agreements and diplomatic challenges.
– Details of the Six-Day War, Yom Kippur War, and their impacts on Israel.
– Borders of the new state, UN membership, immigration influx, and the Arab-Israeli conflict in the 1950s.

Israel (Wikipedia)

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Southern Levant region of West Asia. It is bordered by Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan to the east, the Red Sea to the south, Egypt to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, and the Palestinian territories – the West Bank along the east and the Gaza Strip along the southwest. Tel Aviv is the financial, economic, and technological center of the country, while its seat of government is in its proclaimed capital of Jerusalem, although Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is unrecognized internationally.

State of Israel
מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew)
دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic)
Anthem: הַתִּקְוָה (Hatīkvāh; "The Hope")
Israel within internationally recognized borders shown in dark green; Israeli-occupied territories shown in light green
and largest city
(limited recognition)
31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217
Official languageHebrew
Recognized languageArabic
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Isaac Herzog
Benjamin Netanyahu
Amir Ohana
Uzi Vogelman (acting)
14 May 1948
11 May 1949
• Total
22,072 or 20,770 km2 (8,522 or 8,019 sq mi) (149th)
• Water (%)
• 2024 estimate
Neutral increase 9,879,680 (93rd)
• 2008 census
• Density
448/km2 (1,160.3/sq mi) (29th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $537.140 billion (47th)
• Per capita
Increase $54,771 (29th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $521.688 billion (29th)
• Per capita
Increase $53,195 (18th)
Gini (2018)34.8
HDI (2022)Increase 0.915
very high (25th)
CurrencyNew shekel () (ILS)
Time zoneUTC+2:00 (IST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3:00 (IDT)
Date format
  • יי-חח-שששש (AM)
  • dd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+972
ISO 3166 codeIL

Israel is located in a region known historically as Canaan, Palestine and the Holy Land. In antiquity, it was home to several Canaanite, and later, Israelite and Judahite states. The region was successively conquered by the Assyrian, Babylonian, Achaemenid, Hellenistic empires, Hasmonean kingdom, Herodian rulers, Roman and Byzantine empires, Arab Caliphates, Crusaders, Ayyubids, Mamluks and Ottomans. The late 19th century saw the rise of Zionism in Europe, a movement seeking a Jewish homeland, which garnered British support during World War I. During the war, the Ottomans were defeated and the British Mandate for Palestine was set up in 1920. Jewish immigration to Mandatory Palestine increased considerably, leading to intercommunal conflict between Jews and Arabs. The 1947 UN Partition Plan triggered a civil war between the two groups, which saw the expulsion and flight of most of Palestine's predominantly Arab population.

Israel declared its establishment on 14 May 1948, the day the British terminated the Mandate. On 15 May 1948, the armies of neighboring Arab states invaded the area of the former Mandatory Palestine, starting the First Arab–Israeli War. The 1949 Armistice Agreements saw Israel's borders established over most of the former Mandate territory, while the rest, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, were taken by Jordan and Egypt respectively. The 1967 Six-Day War saw Israel occupying the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula and the Syrian Golan Heights. It has since established and continues to expand settlements across the occupied territories, actions which are deemed illegal under international law, and annexed both East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, which are largely unrecognized internationally. Since the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israel has signed peace treaties with Egypt, returning the Sinai Peninsula, and with Jordan, and more recently normalized relations with several Arab countries. However, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not succeeded. Israel's practices in its occupation of the Palestinian territories have drawn sustained international criticism along with accusations that it has committed war crimes and crimes against humanity against the Palestinian people from human rights organizations and United Nations officials.

The country has a parliamentary system elected by proportional representation. The prime minister serves as head of government, and is elected by the Knesset, Israel's unicameral legislature. Israel has one of the biggest economies in the Middle East by nominal GDP, it is one of the richest countries in the Middle East and Asia, and an OECD member since 2010. It has one of the highest standards of living in the Middle East, and has been ranked as one of the most advanced and technological countries, with a population of nearly 10 million people as of 2023.

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