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Sugarcane mill

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**Sugar Production Process:**
– Harvest and transport to the sugar factory:
– Quality factors: agricultural practices, cultivar
– Harvesting methods: machine vs. manual
– Transportation methods: truck, railway, container, cart
– Cane sale based on weight or sugar content
– Importance of minimizing time between cutting and milling
Juice extraction:
– Preparation of cane before extraction
– Modern processes: tandem mills and diffusion
– Products: mixed juice, diffuser juice, bagasse
– Comparison of traditional mill and diffuser
– Tandem mills operation and efficiency techniques
– Purification of the juice:
– Adjusting pH with calcium hydroxide
– Flash evaporation and impurities precipitation
– Clarification tank for sedimentation
Filtration for further purification
– Recycling poor clarity juice
– Evaporation of water:
– Concentration of juice
– Multiple-effect evaporator usage
– Regulation of temperature, velocity, retention time
– Prevention of sucrose inversion, scale formation
– Crystallization:
– Vacuum boiling pan, crystallizer
– Evaporation for supersaturation
– Addition of seed grain, syrup in process

**Sugar Processing Techniques:**
– Evaporation and Crystallization:
Water evaporation for crystal formation
– Massecuite formation and cooling
– Continuous crystallizer operation
– Centrifuging:
– Separation of crystals from molasses
– Operation at high speeds
– Purging after extraction
– Boiling System:
– Three-boiling system
– Different sugar grades in A, B, C stages
– Importance of crystallizers
– Efficiency of continuous vacuum pans
– Storage of Sugar and Molasses:
– Impact of bulk storage on sugar quality
– Direct packing of raw sugar
– Production of Plantation White Sugar:
– Quality standards for plantation white sugar
– Methods: carbonation and sulphitation
– Changes in purification, evaporation, storage
– Cost-effectiveness of sulphitation
– Making Plantation White Sugar:
Carbonation and sulphitation processes
– Specific steps and materials used
– Storage of Plantation White Sugar:
– Vulnerability to color changes
– Countermeasures for discoloration

**Energy and Automation in Sugar Mills:**
– Energy in the sugar mill:
– Use of bagasse in steam boilers
– High-pressure steam for electricity
– Surplus bagasse utilization
– Factory automation:
– Adoption of automation in refineries
– Central process control system
– Decentralized PLCs for specialized machines
– Enhancements in control, security, efficiency

**History and Evolution of Sugar Mills:**
– Historical background:
– Origins in Arab Egypt
– Transition from trapiche to engenho
– Evolution in the Caribbean
– Types of mills:
– Utilization of wind, water, steam, animal power
– Structural components and power sources
– Modern adaptations:
– Technological advancements over time

**Additional Resources and References:**
– Trapiche, sugar refinery, Fiji sugar mills
List of sugar mills in Queensland
– Citations, historical texts, modern research
– Books, journals, publications on sugar industry
– External links for further information

Sugarcane mill (Wikipedia)

A sugar cane mill is a factory that processes sugar cane to produce raw sugar or plantation white sugar. Some sugar mills are situated next to a back-end refinery, that turns raw sugar into (refined) white sugar.

Inkerman sugar mill in Australia
Hawaii Commercial Sugar (HC&S) sugar mill in Pu'unene, Hawaii.

The term is also used to refer to the equipment that crushes the sticks of sugar cane to extract the juice.

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