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Red wine

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**Pre-fermentation Process**:
– Destemming and crushing to separate grapes from stems and lightly crush them.
– Additions at reception, including sulfur dioxide for oxidation prevention and tannin for stabilization.
– Cooling of the must to around 10°C for pre-fermentation maceration.

**Fermentation Process**:
– Inoculation and fermentation where sugars are converted into alcohol.
– Pumping over techniques to maximize skin and liquid contact for color and flavor extraction.
– Temperature control during fermentation to influence wine flavor profiles.

**Post-fermentation Monitoring**:
– Monitoring density and temperature of fermenting must to track fermentation progress.
– Pressing to extract juice from grapes, with different pressing methods affecting wine quality.
– Malolactic fermentation essential for flavor development in red wines.

**Aging and Stabilization**:
– Aging red wine in stainless steel, concrete tanks, or oak barrels to enhance flavors.
– Fining and stabilization processes like using fining agents and cold stabilization for quality improvement.
– Racking to decant wine off lees for clarification and stability.

**Equipment and Techniques**:
– Modern equipment like stainless steel destemmers and crushers used in the winemaking process.
– Various types of presses, including continuous and tank presses, for juice extraction.
– Different yeast strains and nutrients used for fermentation control and flavor development.

Red wine (Wikipedia)

Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored grape varieties. The color of the wine can range from intense violet, typical of young wines, through to brick red for mature wines and brown for older red wines. The juice from most purple grapes is greenish-white, the red color coming from anthocyan pigments present in the skin of the grape. Much of the red wine production process involves extraction of color and flavor components from the grape skin.

Red wine
A glass of red wine
Alcohol by volume 5.5–20.5%
IngredientsDark-colored grape cultivars
VariantsSee varieties
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