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North Korea

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**History and Founding:**
– Korea’s history dates back to the Gojoseon Kingdom in 2333 BCE, followed by the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties.
– The Korean Empire was established in 1897 and later annexed by Japan in 1910.
– After World War II, the Korean Peninsula was divided, leading to the establishment of North Korea in 1948.
– The failure of reunification negotiations resulted in separate governments in the North and South.

**Government and Leadership:**
– North Korea operates as a totalitarian dictatorship with a significant cult of personality around the Kim family.
– The Workers Party of Korea is the ruling party, and Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism is the official ideology.
– Kim Jong Un leads as the Supreme Leader, with centralized power in the Supreme Peoples Assembly.
– The State Affairs Commission serves as the supreme national guidance organ in North Korea.

**Economy and International Relations:**
– North Korea follows a military-first policy, owning most means of production through state-run enterprises.
– The country has faced economic challenges, including a famine in the 1990s and a decline post the Soviet Union’s fall.
– Internationally, North Korea is isolated due to its actions and ideologies, with membership in various organizations.
– The Korean War and subsequent armistice agreement have influenced North Korea’s international relations.

**Geography and Climate:**
– North Korea occupies the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with a diverse geography of mountains and rivers.
– The country experiences a humid continental climate with distinct seasonal variations.
– Pyongyang’s average temperatures range from -3°C in January to 29°C in August.
– Approximately 60% of North Korea’s precipitation occurs during the summer months.

**Political Ideology and Foreign Relations:**
– Juche is the official ideology emphasizing self-sufficiency, military self-reliance, and an independent foreign policy.
– The Kim family’s cult of personality and hereditary succession are central to North Korea’s leadership.
– North Korea’s foreign relations have been historically tied to communist countries, with a notable relationship with China.
– The country’s government structure, economic policies, and commitment to communism reflect its unique political system.

North Korea (Wikipedia)

North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia. It constitutes the northern half of the Korean Peninsula and borders China and Russia to the north at the Yalu (Amnok) and Tumen rivers, and South Korea to the south at the Korean Demilitarized Zone. The country's western border is formed by the Yellow Sea, while its eastern border is defined by the Sea of Japan. North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. Pyongyang is the capital and largest city.

Democratic People's
Republic of Korea
조선민주주의인민공화국 (Korean)
Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk (MR)
Anthem: 애국가
"The Patriotic Song"
  Territory controlled
and largest city
39°2′N 125°45′E / 39.033°N 125.750°E / 39.033; 125.750
Official languagesKorean (Munhwaŏ)
Official scriptChosŏn'gŭl (Hangul)
GovernmentUnitary one-party socialist republic under a totalitarian hereditary dictatorship
Kim Jong Un
Kim Tok Hun
Choe Ryong-hae
Pak In-chol
LegislatureSupreme People's Assembly
Establishment history
• Gojoseon
2333 BC (mythological)
57 BC
• Goryeo dynasty
• Joseon dynasty
17 July 1392
12 October 1897
22 August 1910
1 March 1919
2 September 1945
6 September 1945
3 October 1945
8 February 1946
22 February 1947
• DPRK established
9 September 1948
27 December 1972
• Total
120,538 km2 (46,540 sq mi) (98th)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 26,072,217 (54th)
• 2008 census
Neutral increase 24,052,231
• Density
212/km2 (549.1/sq mi) (45th)
GDP (PPP)2015 estimate
• Total
$40 billion
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$16 billion
• Per capita
CurrencyKorean People's won (₩) (KPW)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Pyongyang Time)
Date format
  • yy, yyyy년 mm월 dd일
  • yy, yyyy/mm/dd (AD–1911 / AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+850
ISO 3166 codeKP

In 1945, after the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II, Korea was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. In 1948, separate governments were formed in Korea: the socialist and Soviet-aligned Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, and the capitalist, Western-aligned Republic of Korea in the south. The Korean War began when North Korean forces invaded South Korea in 1950. In 1953, the Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire and established a demilitarized zone (DMZ), but no formal peace treaty has ever been signed. Post-war North Korea benefited greatly from economic aid and expertise provided by other Eastern Bloc countries. However, Kim Il Sung, North Korea's first leader, promoted his personal philosophy of Juche as the state ideology. Pyongyang's international isolation sharply accelerated from the 1980s onwards as the Cold War came to an end. The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 then brought about a sharp decline to the North Korean economy. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine with the population continuing to suffer from malnutrition. In 2024, North Korea formally abandoned efforts to peacefully reunify Korea.

North Korea is a totalitarian dictatorship with a comprehensive cult of personality around the Kim family. Amnesty International considers the country to have the worst human rights record in the world. Officially, North Korea is an "independent socialist state" which holds democratic elections; however, outside observers have described the elections as unfair, uncompetitive, and pre-determined, in a manner similar to elections in the Soviet Union. The Workers' Party of Korea is the ruling party of North Korea. According to Article 3 of the constitution, Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism is the official ideology of North Korea. The means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services—such as healthcare, education, housing, and food production—are subsidized or state-funded.

North Korea follows Songun, a "military first" policy which prioritizes the Korean People's Army in state affairs and the allocation of resources. It possesses nuclear weapons. Its active-duty army of 1.28 million soldiers is the fourth-largest in the world. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, North Korea is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77, and the ASEAN Regional Forum.

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