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Metabolic syndrome

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**Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of Metabolic Syndrome:**
– Central obesity is a key sign of metabolic syndrome.
– Other signs include high blood pressure, decreased HDL cholesterol, elevated triglyceride level, impaired fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and prediabetes.
– Associated conditions include hyperuricemia, fatty liver, polycystic ovarian syndrome, erectile dysfunction, and acanthosis nigricans.
– Metabolic syndrome can lead to type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, kidney disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
– It is associated with increased risk of surgical complications across various procedures.
– Complications can have serious and chronic health impacts.
– Regular monitoring and lifestyle modifications are essential in managing metabolic syndrome.

**Causes and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome:**
– Risk factors include diet, genetics, aging, sedentary behavior, disrupted sleep, mood disorders, and excessive alcohol use.
– Excessive expansion of adipose tissue due to overeating plays a role.
– Debate exists on whether obesity or insulin resistance is the cause.
– Western diet habits and energy imbalance contribute to metabolic syndrome development.
– Chronic stress can disrupt hormonal balance and contribute to metabolic syndrome.
– Development of visceral fat leads to increased TNF-α levels, triggering inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance.
– Endocannabinoid system and omega-6 fatty acid oversupply contribute to metabolic syndrome.

**Impact of Obesity and Sedentary Lifestyle on Metabolic Syndrome:**
– Central obesity is a key feature and contributor to insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome.
– Insulin resistance can occur even in individuals with normal weight.
– Visceral and ectopic fat play a significant role in metabolic abnormalities.
– Lifestyle modifications focusing on weight management are crucial in addressing metabolic syndrome.
– Physical inactivity is a predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality.
– Sedentary behaviors increase the risk of metabolic syndrome.
– Regular physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviors are important in preventing metabolic syndrome.

**Health Conditions Associated with Metabolic Syndrome:**
– Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is quintupled by metabolic syndrome.
– Metabolic syndrome prevalence in people with CAD is 50%.
– Lipodystrophic disorders, rheumatic diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are linked to metabolic syndrome.
– High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts coronary vascular diseases in metabolic syndrome.
– Reproductive disorders like erectile dysfunction and decreased total testosterone are associated with metabolic syndrome.

**Prevention, Management, and Epidemiology of Metabolic Syndrome:**
– Prevention strategies include increased physical activity, healthy diet, and sociopolitical interventions.
– Management involves treating individual disorders, using medications like diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and dietary modifications.
– Epidemiologically, 20-25% of the world’s adult population has metabolic syndrome, with a rising trend in recent years.
– Historical background includes early observations on the association between diabetes, hypertension, and obesity leading to the concept of metabolic syndrome.
– Genetic, lifestyle, nutritional, hormonal factors, and medical research play significant roles in understanding and treating metabolic syndrome.

Metabolic syndrome (Wikipedia)

Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of at least three of the following five medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides, and low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Metabolic syndrome
Other namesDysmetabolic syndrome X
A man with marked central obesity, a hallmark of metabolic syndrome. His weight is 182 kg (400 lbs), height 185 cm (6 ft 1 in), and body mass index (BMI) 53 (normal 18.5 to 25).
Differential diagnosisInsulin resistance, prediabetes, hyperuricemia, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome, erectile dysfunction, acanthosis nigricans

Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In the U.S., about 25% of the adult population has metabolic syndrome, a proportion increasing with age, particularly among racial and ethnic minorities.

Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and prediabetes are closely related to one another and have overlapping aspects. The syndrome is thought to be caused by an underlying disorder of energy utilization and storage, but the cause of the syndrome is an area of ongoing medical research. Researchers debate whether a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome implies differential treatment or increases risk of cardiovascular disease beyond what is suggested by the sum of its individual components.

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