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Sweetened beverage

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**Health Implications of Sweetened Beverages**
– Increased consumption linked to weight gain, obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes.
– Recommendation of a sweetened beverage tax by the Institute of Medicine.
– Implementation of sugar tax in countries like Mexico.
– Governmental policies to reduce sugary beverages in school cafeterias.
– Sugar-sweetened beverages are the leading source of added sugars in the American diet.
World Health Organization guidance on free sugars and their impact on health.
– Reduction in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduces the risk of unhealthy weight gain.
– Daily calorie limit recommends added sugars to be less than 10% of total calories.
– Sugar-sweetened beverages are a significant portion of caloric intake in the United States.
– They represent about 7% of total energy intake.
– Consumption of sweetened beverages has increased since the 1970s.
– They are the largest single food source of calories in the US diet.
Added sugar consumption in the US has started declining in the 21st century.

**Sugar Addiction and Consumption Studies**
Sugar consumption associated with chronic kidney disease.
– Increase in sugar consumption in the US, driven by high fructose syrup.
– Recent study challenges the notion of sugar addiction.
– Findings indicate minimal contribution of sugary foods to food dependence and weight gain.
– Studies on sugar consumption effects conducted on various test subjects.

**Comparison: Milk vs. Sweetened Beverages**
– Children tend to choose sweetened beverages over milk at lunchtime.
– Sweetened beverages displace important nutrients like iron and calcium.
– Insufficient calcium intake in adolescence can lead to osteoporosis and obesity.
– Maternal milk consumption influences children’s milk intake.
– Initiatives like the Healthy Schools Campaign promote replacing sugary drinks with water in schools.

**Health Effects of Sweetened Beverages**
Obesity prevalence influenced by various factors, including increased consumption of added sugars.
– Correlation between sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain or obesity.

**Artificial Sweeteners and Diet Beverages**
– Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) in artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs).
– ASBs are popular due to the demand for alternatives to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs).
– Consumption of ASBs with low-caloric NNSs has risen globally.
– Reports show ASB consumption in around 30% of adults and 15% of children in the USA (2007-2008).
– Diet sodas are a common type of ASB in the market.
– Health organizations’ stance on artificial sweeteners.
– Science is inconclusive regarding health impacts of ASBs.
– WHO advises against using artificial sweeteners for weight control or disease risk reduction.
– ASBs may increase appetite, promote weight gain, and have negative health outcomes.
– High ASB consumption is linked to increased all-cause mortality and CVD mortality.

Sweetened beverage (Wikipedia)

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are any beverage with added sugar. They have been described as "liquid candy". Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have been linked to weight gain and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. According to the CDC, consumption of sweetened beverages is also associated with unhealthy behaviors like smoking, not getting enough sleep and exercise, and eating fast food often and not enough fruits regularly.

Soft drinks displayed on the shelves of a Woolworths supermarket in Brazil

Artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) are defined as those containing non-nutritive sweeteners and are marketed as a replacement for sugar-sweetened beverages. Similar to sugar-sweetened beverages they are linked to weight gain and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality.

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