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Grape syrup

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**Names and Etymology:**
– Ancient Greek name: siraios (σιραίος)
– General category name: hepsema (ἕψημα)
– Other names: Petimezi, Turkish pekmez, Vincotto

– Greco-Roman: Mentioned by Hippocrates and Aristophanes in 5th-century BC
– Roman names: Defrutum, carenum, sapa
– Risk of lead poisoning from Roman grape syrup production
– Islamic history: Known as tilā in Arabic, distributed to troops, fermentation risks

**Modern Usage:**
– Cyprus still uses the ancient Greek name hépsēma
– Nutritional value of Petimezi per 100g
– Uses of Petimezi in Greek cooking
– Commercial availability under different brand names
– Worldwide usage in Iran, Italy, North Macedonia, South Africa, Spain

**Production and Characteristics:**
– Derived from grape varieties like Pedro Ximénez
– Made by boiling unfermented grape juice until volume is reduced by at least 50%
– Final product is a thick liquid with cooked caramel flavors
– Used as an additive for dark, sweet wines

**Uses and Cultural Significance:**
– Commonly added to sweet wines like sherry, Malaga, and Marsala
– Known as ‘pekmez’ in Turkey and ‘dibs’ in the Levant
– Used as a sweetener, in desserts, and in traditional cuisines
– Cultural significance in Spanish, Turkish, and Levantine culinary traditions
– Associated with Mediterranean recipes and historical references in Greek and Roman texts

Grape syrup (Wikipedia)

Grape syrup is a condiment made with concentrated grape juice. It is thick and sweet because of its high ratio of sugar to water. Grape syrup is made by boiling grapes, removing their skins, squeezing them through a sieve to extract the juice. Like other fruit syrups, a common use of grape syrup is as a topping to sweet cakes, such as pancakes or waffles.

Eight-flavor syrup dispenser including grape syrup
Jallab syrup made from carob, dates, grape molasses and rose water; used to make jallab tea
Churchkhela, a snack made from nuts (walnuts or hazelnuts, usually) dipped in grape syrup
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