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Coffea arabica – Wikipedia

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Taxonomy and Origin:
– Coffea arabica first described as Jasminum arabicum by Antoine de Jussieu.
– Linnaeus placed it in the Coffea genus in 1737.
– It is a polyploid species with 44 chromosomes.
– Result of hybridization between Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides.
– Hybridization event estimated between 1.08 million and 543,000 years ago.

Description and Distribution:
– Wild plants grow 9-12m tall with elliptic-ovate leaves.
– Flowers white, 10-15mm in diameter, growing in axillary clusters.
– Seeds in cherry mature red to purple, usually with two coffee beans.
– Plant distribution from Tropic of Capricorn to Tropic of Cancer.
– Invasive in some areas outside its native land.
– Endemic to Ethiopian highlands but grown in many countries globally.

History and Cultivation:
– First record of coffee made from roasted beans by Arab scholars.
– Spread of coffee brewing from Yemen to Egypt, Turkey, and globally.
– Arabica coffee production in Indonesia started in 1699.
– Accounts for 60% of global coffee production.
– Takes about seven years to mature fully.
– Cultivated at altitudes between 1,300 and 1,500m.
– Vulnerable to climate change, leading to breeding new cultivars.

Strains and Threats:
– One strain of Coffea arabica has very low caffeine content.
– Threatened by deforestation and climate change.
– Conservation relies on wild coffee populations in Yemen.
– Genetic research highlights threats to wild coffee genetics.
– Heat-tolerant Coffea stenophylla may replace C. arabica in cultivation.

Gallery, Resources, and References:
– Images of coffee germinating, growing, flowers, fruits, and seeds.
– Includes fermented and roasted coffee seeds at different stages.
– Provides related topics like Maraba coffee and National symbols of Yemen.
– References various sources including IUCN Red List, USDA, and scientific journals.

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